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Cornell SOC 1101 Prelim 2
Terms in this set (91)
Fluid, Historically and culturally specific, Socially constructed, Has consequences across place and context
a social invention that changes as political, economic, and historical contexts change (ie. U.S. government defines race).
The process by which people use socially constructed understandings of race to classify individuals or groups of people
Aspects of race
externally imposed, involuntary, often based on physical differences, hierarchical, exclusive, unequal
Aspects of ethnicity
voluntary, self-defined, non-hierarchical, fluid and multiple, cultural, planar
According to Trillin's paper "Black or White?" (1986) how is race in the U.S. socially constructed?
Depends on geography, time, laws, and political regimes/colonial powers.
Who pretended to be African American and ran the NAACP?
What was Rachel Dolezal's excuse for pretending to be black?
Race is a social construct.
What do race and ethnicity define for sociologists?
an axis of social difference, a source of inequality, a consequential factor of the U.S. social structure
Areas of sociological work with respect to race/ethnicity
bias/attitudes/stereotypes, discrimination (housing, employment, schooling), residential patterns (segregation between neighborhoods), disparities across social outcomes
What is race?
a social construct with no biological basis; the categories are symbolic and constructed within specific social, political, and historical contexts
What does John Gray, author of "Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus" believe about sex and gender?
(1) men and women are different biological organisms (biological), (2) the biological differences manifest themselves in the ways men and women behave (social), (3) sex does not equal gender
What is sex?
the biological differences that distinguish males from females
What is gender?
the set of social arrangements and expectations that are built around normative sex categories
What are gender roles?
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
Examples of gender roles
men are strong, women are sensitive
What is gender role socialization?
the learning of male- and female-typed roles and practices via agents of socialization
Examples of gender role socialization
family, schooling and the media
What are the three genders of the Navajo society?
masculine men, feminine women, nadle (mixed gender)
What are some aspects of today's masculinity?
physical strength, sports, and money-making endeavors
What are some aspects of 1700's masculinity?
kindness, intellect and poetry
How does gender role socialization develop in children?
(1) an infant is born with a sex and develops a gender, (2) children are guided into this process by positive and negative sanctions
What do West and Zimmerman mean by "doing gender"?
(1) gender is more than learning to act like a man or women, (2) we 'do' daily, (3) gender not fixed, (4) gender product of social interactions, (5) gender is a matter of active doing, not natural
How is gender a performance according to Goffman's dramaturgical theory of social interactions?
it is carried out in the presence of others who are presumed to understand the cues
Lorber and gender being a process
it creates the social differences that define "woman" and "man"
Lorber and gender as stratification
ranks men above women
Lorber and gender as structure
divides work, legitimizes those in power, and organizes sexuality and emotional life
According to England (2010) why has there been progress in gender equality in some areas of life, but not others?
(1) there is an increasing devaluation of jobs previously done by women, (2) there are asymmetric incentives to cross gender barries, (3) the personal realm prevents gender equality, and (4) professional vs blue collar gender integration
What does the gender pay gap show?
Women earn less than men in 439 or 446 major U.S. occupations.
What is the number one reason for the gender wage gap according to Blau and Kahn?
It is unknown
What is sexuality?
the desires, attraction, sexual preference, sexual identity, orientation and behavior of an individual
What are the conclusions about sex, gender and sexuality?
(1) biological sex does not always match one's gender identity and (2) sexuality or sexual orientation does not always align with biological sex and/or gender identity
How do social norms orient bedroom activities?
(1) dictate how we have sex and with whom, (2) encourage some practices and condemn others
How does sexuality vary?
across culture, time and place
Examples of societies in which same-sex relations were acceptable
ancient greeks, Siwans of North Africa, Keraki of New Guinea
reasons for encouraged same-sex relations in some societies
keeps population low on already over-populated islands
What did Alfred Kinsey write about in his article, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948)?
there is a discrepancy between public expectations and actual sexual conduct, most people experience both homosexual and heterosexual feelings and behaviors
How did the identify of homosexuality change as a social construct?
went from a sexual act to a defining characteristic of a person
How is the American adolescent masculinity formed according to Pascoe in her article "Dude, you're a fag"?
teen boys police, regulate and affirm their burgeoning masculinity (masculinity decoupled from sexuality) using this discourse
What has changed with sex on campus?
There is no real difference in the number of sexual partners compared to previous generations, but there is a new culture of sex on campus.
What is the difference between "hookup" and "hookup culture" according to Wade?
Hookup are common, but not an epidemic. The hookup culture revolves around parties, booze, sexualized bodies, sexual expectations, the pressure (outside/within) to see sex as fun, and the view of sexual freedom as an indicator of one's ability to be fun.
In which groups are the rates of sexual assault and misconduct the highest at universities?
undergraduate women and those identifying as TGQN
The risk of the mist serious types of sexual assault..
decline from freshman to senior year
What is deviance?
any transgression of socially established norms
Who makes decisions about what behaviors are seen as deviant or normal?
What is the purpose of conducting breaching experiments?
they seek to examine reactions to violations of commonly accepted social rules or norms
Deviance is ...
a violation of social norms; informal enforcement with less severe consequences.
an act punishable by law; formal enforcement with severe consequences
not all crimes are seen as deviant and ...
...not all deviance's are crimes
Examples of deviance
bizarre clothing, nose picking, facial tattoos, excessive PDA
Examples of crime
parking ticket, speeding violation, underage drinking
Examples of deviant crime
murder, sexual assault
Deviance is defined socially and ...
varies from one group or context to another
According to Becker in Outsiders, how do social groups create deviance?
they set the rules of what is right and wrong, and by labeling wrongdoers as outsiders
What is Durkheim's view of solidarity and deviance?
deviance exists to ensure social cohesion
What is an anomie?
A sense of aimlessness or despair that is common in a society where social norms lose their hold over individual behavior
What is anomie deviance?
when a society develops social norms that a significant part of the population is unable to realize
What are the points of the labeling theory?
Deviance is the product of a process that involves responses of other people to the behavior; we react to the labels other people give us by forming those into the basis of our social identity
According to Goffman, what is social stigma?
A negative social label that not only changes others' behavior toward a person but also alters that person's own self-concept and social identity.
How does social stigma function as a social control?
it imposes social sanctions on those deemed deviants; leads to social isolation and subordination of the marginalized
What is social control?
the tendency for people to comply with social norms by policing ourselves, even if there is no immediate threat of punishment for violating taboos
What are social institutions?
a collection of positions, roles, norms and values, lodged in particular types of social structures, which organize relatively stable patterns of human behavior.
What is the function of social institutions?
help society function by creating continuity across generations
Examples of social institutions
families/marriage, schools/ education, criminal justice system/laws, churches/religion
What is the major family form in American today?
There are none that account for the majority of U.S. households today?
What is a family?
a group of people related to one another by blood ties, marriage or adoption; adult members are responsible for the upbringing of children
What is a household?
a group of people sharing living quarters and subsistence for extended periods of time; need not share blood ties.
What is primary socialization?
the process by which children learn their society's norms, values and expectations for behavior
What is personality stabilization
the role of the family in assisting its adult members emotionally
Why study the family?
it is the site for reproducing inequality
Family and gender inequality
family is where we "do gender"
Family and intergenerational inequality
family is the site where advantage or disadvantage can be transferred from one generation to the next
What does it mean for marriage to become "deinstitutionalized"?
A weakening of social norms that define partners' behavior and guide expectations
How has the meaning of marriage changed?
institutional marriage to companionate marriage to individualized marriage
What social changes caused the meaning of marriage to change?
change in division of labor in the home, increase in childbearing outside of marriage, steep rise in divorce, growth of cohabitation, emergence of same-sex unions
What is cohabitation?
living together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning
How has the division of labor in the household changed?
women still do a disproportionately higher share of domestic duties, but work in the labor market as well (working women have a "second shift" at home)
What is formal deviance?
What is Merton's Structural Strain Theory?
Anomie (or deviance) results when a society develops social norms that a significant part of the population is unable to realize
How do US property-crime rates relate to GDP per person?
If inequality is rising with income, more people might be lacking the means to achieve the desirable ends
What is the rational actor theory?
individuals commit a crime if the expected benefits exceed the expected costs of doing so
How does the 360 degree prison situation work?
Only one guard, but prisoners cannot see that; therefore, they expected to be watched and police each other.
What is the Enduring Neighborhood Effect according to Sampson?
spatially inscribed social differences are pervasive and durable
What is education?
the process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools are developed
What are schools?
institutions of educational instruction
What is schooling?
education or training received, usually (but not always) at schools
What are the three roles of schools in society?
socialization and assimilation, credentialing, social sorting and reproduction
How are schools important in socialization?
teach mainstream society's norms, values, beliefs and expectations; emphasize a common language, history serving a pivotal role in nation building
How is education an important credentialing mechanism?
the certificates and degrees earned from schooling signal skills to employers and create formal pathways to labor markets
What is credentialism?
the overemphasis on credentials for signaling job qualifications
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