24 terms

Digestion Vocabulary

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Nutrient
the substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all its essential processes
Calorie
the amount of energy nutrients release are measured in these units
Carbohydrat
composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen - main sources of energy
Simple Sugars (glucose)
major source of energy for your body's cells
Protein
these are needed for tissue growth and repair. Amino Acids are what we are made up of
Fat (Lipids)
contain more than twice the energy of an equal amount of carbohydrates. Are composed of the same things as carbohydrates
Digestion
the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules
Absorption
the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
Saliva
the fluid released when your mouth waters
Enzyme
proteins that speed up chemical reactions in your body
Epiglottis
as you swallow, this flap of tissue seals off your windpipe, preventing the food from entering
Esophagus
this pipe is where your food goes down, and is a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
Mucus
the esophagus is lined with this thick, slippery substance produced by the body
Peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction
Stomach
when food leaves the esophagus, it goes into a j-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen
Small Intestine
part of the digestive system where most of the chemical digestion takes place
Liver
the largest organ inside of your body
Bile
a substance that breaks up fat particles
Gallbladder
the organ that stores the bile
Pancreas
a triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine
Villi
millions of tiny finger shaped structures that cover the surface of the small intestine
Large Intestine
last section of the digestive system
Chemical Digestion
chemicals produced by the body break foods into smaller chemical building blocks (complex sugar breaks down simple sugar)
Mechanical Digestion
when food are physically broken down into smaller pieces