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Chapter 12: Forensic Serology
Terms in this set (92)
term used to describe laboratory tests using reactions of blood serum and bodily fluids
bodily fluids consists of
blood, semen, saliva, sweat, urine, fecal matter
whats the responsibility of serology?
blood typing, stain patterns for crime scene reconstruction, paternity testing, semen identification, DNA
where is blood evidence most often found?
in crimes of violence (homicide, assault, and sexual assault)
forms of blood
fresh liquid, coagulated, dried, strain, small drops
how much blood is in human body?
how does blood leave body when wounded?
blood can either leak or spray
blood is cohesive
blood is attracted o other blood molecules (sticks to itself)
blood is composed of?
cells, enzymes, proteins, water, inorganic substances (salt)
what % of blood is plasma?
red blood cells
white blood cells
Red blood cells
biconcave shaped cells produced in long bone marrow; packed with hemoglobin, carries oxygen throughout body;
red blood cells
white blood cells
white blood cells
least numerous; produced in long bone marrow 5 major types; defends against infection/injury; destroys cancer cells
part of blood responsible for clotting; produced in bone marrow
named and standardized blood groups
substance that usually a protein that stimulates the body to produce antibodies against it
what do antigens do?
allow living system to recognize foreign biological substances
how many antigens does human RBCs have?
more than 15, but only type for 2 (A & B)
Blood Type A
A antigens; B antibodies
Blood Type B
B antigens; A antibodies
Blood Type AB
A&B antigens; No antibodies
Blood Type O
No antigens; A&B antibodies
Universal blood donor
Universal blood receiver
antibody fits perfectly with antigens cause clotting and blood clumping together destroying cells
drug antibody reaction the reacts with drugs that do not naturally exist (used for drug tests)
drugs are combines with a protein and combination is injected into bunny; drug-protein simulates bunny and it produces antibodies; blood serum is recovered from bunny which contains antibodies that are specific to drug being tested
Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique
What is EMT
a commercial drug test in which sect supplies urine, antibodies that bind to drug being tested are added to urine
What does it mean of drug is present during EMT?
If dug is present, it immediately binds to antibodies
3 questions about blood that must be answered by investigator
Is it blood? is it human blood? Can is be associated with an individual?
benzidine test, kastle-meyer, hemastix, luminol
discontinued because of know carcinogen (cancer)
most common test for blood; phenolphthalein and peroxide
field test; designed as dipstick for detection of blood
field test; luminol and blood emits light under UV light in dark area; detects dilution up to 300,00 times
lab test; microcrystalline test --> hemoglobin derivative causes crystal to form
what test is conducted to test if the blood is human blood?
antibody reacts with corresponding antigen o for precipitate; can be used on blood 4000-5000 years
how is hereditary material transmitted?
basic unit of heredity
what do genes determine?
nature and growth of cells
how many chromosomes does humans have?
46 (23 pairs)
how many chromosomes do sex cells have?
where are genes positioned?
eggs and sperm form this during fertilization
all eggs contain this chromosome for determining sex
X and Y chromosomes
sperm can carry both of these chromosomes
who determines sex of child?
position of specific gene
alternative form of genes that influence a specific trait
same (HH or hh)
how sperm does men release during ejaculation
2.5 - 6 mL
how many sperms cella are in each mL
100 million sperm cells per mL
acid phosphatase color test
an enzymes contained in semen
deeper purple: more semen
identification of sperm under microscope
low sperm count
absence of sperm completely
P30 Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
P30 protein when mixed with sperm causes antigen to migrate and create precipitate line
collection fo rape evidence
semen (if applicable), sheets, fabrics, clothing, swabs of body and under nails, bruising, blood, hairs
protein in blood that destroys foreign antigen
blood disease cause by irregular shape of RBC
where are most RBC made in body?
long bone marrow
blood protein isolated fro rhesus monkey
Which blood type is most rare in US?
AB blood type
what is actually seen in genetic mix
the exact mix, show recessive trait
which phenotype can genotype be directly known?
Type AB and type O
T or F: DNA has replaced importance of blood typing
T or F: when blood is typed here are two antigens which are tested
which two antigens are test wen typing blood?
ABO system and presence of Rh
T or F: With DNA technology, semen can now be individualized
what chemical is used to detect bloodstains that have been diluted?
when searching through many garments, what test is used to detect semen?
which protein proves that stain sample has semen
what two tests prove that presence of this protein
Acid phosphatase and UV light
why should blood and urine samples be collected from rape victim?
to see if victim was drugged
in blood typing, which is recessive allele?
liquid separated from blood when clotting
what is the "D" antigen?
what does serum contain?
what is normal pH for blood?
series of antibodies produced that respond to a variety of different sites on an antigen
antibodies that intereact with a single antigen site
fused spleen and tumor cells used to produce identical monoclonal antibodies in a limitless supply
technique in which antigens and antibodies are induced to move toward one another under the influence of an electrical field
What does Rh factor show up as?
positive (+) and negative (-)