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Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory

trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
initiative vs guilt
industry vs inferiority

trust vs mistrust

"will my needs be met, or can I not count on others for care?" (0-1)

autonomy vs shame and doubt

gaining a sense of power and control to do things on your own (1-3)

initiative vs guilt

using the opportunity to execute autonomy in adult like situations (3-6)

why are early childhood children able to make peer relationships

ego-centrism dies down
prosocial behavior increases

explain first friendships in early childhood

mutual, voluntary relationships that have positive correlation w/ success in school and dealing with stress

cognitive play


functional play

simple repetitive actions

constructive play

use of ideas and objects symbollically


use of ideas and objects as symbols

6 levels of social play by Parten


genetic utterances

"boys can't be princesses"

social learning theory

we understand typing through modeling and reinforcement
behavior comes before self-perception of gender

cognitive developmental theory

understanding come before behavior
understanding sex constancy

gender (sex) constancy

gender labeling
gender stability
gender consistency

gender schema theory

how we think gender should be (I'm a boy vs. I'm Billy)
boy=high schematic
billy=low schematic

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