187 terms

2018 Science Vocab Review (Chapter 1-10)

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Life Span
The longest period of life reached by a type of organism
Life Cycle
a series of stages through which an organism passes between recurrences of a primary stage
Incomplete Metamorphosis
A type of metamorphosis with three stages: egg, nymph, and adult.
Complete Metamorphosis
A type of metamorphosis characterized by four dramatically different stages. (Egg, Larva, Pupa, Adult)
Egg
The first stage of incomplete and complete metamorphosis, The beginning of an insects life cycle.
Larva
the second stage in an insect life cycle (complete metamorphosis)
Pupa
The third stage of complete metamorphosis, in which an insect changes from a larva to an adult.
Adult
The most mature stage in a life cycle. More eggs or seeds are created by the adults in a life cycle.
Nymph
A stage of incomplete metamorphosis that usually resembles the adult insect. This stage has very little change over time.
metamorphosis
change; transformation
Flower
Makes the fruit/seeds of a plant
Root
Anchors the plant and gets water from the soil
Stem
Moves the water from the roots to the leaves
Leaf
The place where photosynthesis happens. Contains Chloroplast and chlorophyll
Fruit
Produced by the flower of a plant, contains the seeds for reproduction.
Taproot System
One main root grows deep into the soil, with small tiny roots off the side
Fibrous Root System
small tiny roots all similar in size that come from stem of plant
Photosynthesis
The way that plants make sugar. Plants need sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to do this.
Glucose
The sugar that a plant makes during photosynthesis
Adventitious Roots
Roots that grow above the ground and will grow out of a part of a plant. (Vines)
Chloroplast
The part in a plant cell that makes sugar during photosynthesis.
Sugar and Oxygen
The two things made during photosynthesis
Sunlight, Water, & Carbon Dioxide
The 3 things that plants need in order to complete photosynthesis.
Vacuole
Found in Plant cells. Stores water and other substances
Nucleus
Chromosomes made from DNA are found here . "The Brain of the Cell", directs all cell's activities
Cytoplasm
Term for the cell gel - chemical reactions happen here
Mitochondria
Called the powerhouse of the cell. Where a cell gets all it's energy from.
Cell Membrane
Controls what enters and leaves the cells, border patrol
Cell Wall
All plant cells have this. It is a protective wall made of cellulose.
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis in ALL plant cells. Traps energy from the sun to produce it's own food.
Cell Wall and Chloroplasts
Two parts that a plant cell has that an animal cell does not.
Chromosomes
The tiny blueprints that are inside the nucleus
Plant Cell
a type of cell that is normally in plants, it has a solid rectangular shape. Has a cell wall
Animal Cell
a type of cell that is normally in humans, it has a soft and squishy outside.
Can The Orange Otter Sing Opera
Cells, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
Tissue
groups of cells of the same type
Organ
groups of tissues that all do the same function
Organ System
groups of organs
Organism
Any living thing that has cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
New moon
Start of the phase. "New" cycle.
Full moon
Fully illuminated moon
First Quarter
Lit on the right side, dark on the left.
Third Quarter
Lit on the left side, dark on the right.
Waxing Gibbous
Slightly dark on the left side, mostly lit on the right.
Waning Gibbous
Slightly dark on the right side, mostly lit on the left.
Waning Crescent
Crescent on the left side, dark on the right.
Waxing Crescent
Crescent on the right side, dark on the left.
Axis
An imaginary line that goes through the center of an object that they spin around.
Revolution
When one object moves around another object in space.
Rotation
When an object is spinning on its axis.
Solar Eclipse
When the light from the sun is blocked by the moon and we have a shadow projected on earth.
Lunar Eclipse
When the light from the sun is blocked by the earth and we have a shadow projected on the moon.
Solstices
The longest and shortest amount of daylight. This is the first day of summer and winter.
Equinoxes
Days and nights are equal during these dates
Seasons
Earth has seasons because because its axis is tilted as it moves around the sun. We have four seasons. Spring Summer Winter and Fall
Equator
the imaginary center line that divides the northern and southern hemispheres.
Hemisphere
a half of the Earth (normally divided into North, South, East, or West)
Adaptation
a physical feature or behavior that helps an organism survive in its habitat.
Hibernation
to go into a deep sleep during which an animal uses very little energy and usually does not need to eat.
Migration
to move to another region when seasons change and food supplies become scarce.
Extinct
no longer living; when the last member of a species has died, the species is ________.
Habitat
the place where an organism lives.
Niche
the role a plant or animal plays in its habitat.
Species
a group of living things that produces living things of the same kind
Camouflage
the coloring, marking, or other physical appearance of an animal that helps it blend in with its surroundings
Mimicry
an adaptation that allows an animal to protect itself by looking like another kind of animal or like a plant.
predator
animal that hunts and eats other animals
prey
animal hunted or caught for food
carnivore
an animal that eats only meat
herbivore
an animal that eats only plants
omnivore
an animal that eats both plants and animals
energy pyramid
shows the amount of energy available to pass from one level of a food chain to the next
primary consumer
animal that only eats plants; herbivore; first-level consumer
secondary consumer
animal that eats herbivores; carnivore; second-level consumer
tertiary consumer
animal that eats secondary consumers; carnivore eats another carnivore; third-level consumer
food web
shows the interactions among many different food chains in a single ecosystem
food chain
shows the path of food energy in an ecosystem from plants to animals
scavenger
an animal that feeds on dead animals
decomposer
an organism that breaks down dead plants and animals
weathering
The process of breaking down rock into smaller pieces (sediment).
erosion
The process of moving small pieces of rock to another location by wind or water.
deposition
The process of putting something down, as when a river deposits soil to form a delta.
sediment
Small pieces of rock and dirt that have been broken down through weathering
soil
A mixture of minerals, organic materials, air, and water in which plants grow.
glacier
a slowly moving mass of ice
plain
flat lands with little change in elevation
plateau
a relatively flat highland - flatland higher than the surrounding land
hill
a raised area or mound of land
mountain
a very high, natural place on Earth
valley
a low place between mountains
canyon
a deep valley with steep sides usually created by a river
desert
a very dry area with little or no vegetation
peninsula
a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides
island
a piece of land surrounded by water
bay
a body of water partially enclosed by land - smaller than a gulf
river
A large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean.
lake
A body of water completely surrounded by land
volcano
A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
isthmus
a narrow strip of land with sea on either side, forming a link between two larger areas of land.
delta
an area of land in which a river divides into smaller rivers and empties into a larger body of water. Formed by Deposition
Speed
How far an object moves in a certain amount of time.
Direction
That path that something is moving or pointing towards.
Velocity
When we are describing an objects speed and direction.
Gravity
The force that pulls objects towards the Earth.
Force
A push or pull that makes an object move, stop, or change direction.
Motion
The process of moving.
Position
Where an object is located, described based on other objects around it.
Friction
The force that resists motion, slows objects down.
Simple Machine
A tool used to make doing work easier. (Examples: Ramp, Lever, or Pulley)
Work
The force used when moving an object to a new location.
Acceleration
An increase in the rate or speed of something.
Balanced Forces
More than one force pushing on an object, but they are pushing the same amount.
Unbalanced Forces
More than one force pushing on an object, but one is pushing more than the other. (An object will move when it is unbalanced)
Conductors
any object that lets electricity pass through (metal, water, living things).
Insulators
any object that does not let electricity pass through (rubber, wood, glass, plastic, air).
Positive
Repel when put near another positive, and attract when put near a negative. Cannot be transferred.
Negative
Repel when put near another negative, and attract when put near a positive. Can be transferred.
Electromagnet
a magnet that needs electricity flowing around it to work.
Magnets
an object that repels and attracts most metals. (has a north and south).
Circuits
A loop of flowing energy.
Parallel Circuits
2 or more circuits, that can be controlled separately. Each circuit needs a lightbulb.
Series Circuits
1 circuit that is all controlled together. All lightbulbs in the same circuit.
Neutral
Equal, even, the same, balanced (Electrically Neutral).
Motor
uses electricity to move (hooked to a battery).
Generator
makes electricity by moving (using a handcrank).
Electricity
a type of energy that powers electronics, light bulbs, our homes.
Static Electricity
A buildup of electrical charges, cause by rubbing objects together.
Electrical Discharge
releasing electricity (a shock) after they have the same charges.
Poles
The north and south ends of a magnet.
Repel
To push away from .
Attract
To pull closer to.
Current
the flow of electrical energy (normally through a circuit).
Battery
called an electric cell, uses chemical energy to make electricity.
Electrical Charges
objects can be positive, negative or neutral.
Energy
the ability to cause change, or to do something.
Atom
smaller than a cell, the building blocks to everything. Made of Electrons, protons, and neutrons
Compass
Tells magnetic north ( towards the Earth's poles). Works because Earth = Giant Magnet
Magnetic
can be attracted to a magnet, most metals are magnetic. Steel and Iron.
Simple Circuit
1 battery, 1 light bulb, 1 switch, wires to connect.
Temporary
not forever (not going to last long)
Permanent
forever ( not going away)
Magnetic Field
The magnetic forces between the north and south pole of any magnet.
Electrons
Negative parts of an atom, and can be transferred.
Lightbulb
part of a circuit that produces light, must have electricity flow through bottom and side to work.
light
a form of energy that you can see
transparent
Objects that allow most light through them
translucent
Objects that blur light that passes through them and appear the color of light that passes through them.
opaque
Objects that little to no light pass through and appear the color of the light that they scatter.
shadow
The absence of light that occurs when an opaque or translucent object is between a light source and another object.
reflection
The organized scattering of a light wave
concave
A lens that curves inward
convex
A lens with surfaces that curve outward bends light rays so that they are focused in toward a common point
refraction
bending of light waves as they pass from one substance to another
Roy G Biv
The acronym for the colors of the rainbow in order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.
waves
travel in a straight line (light and sound travels in waves)
prism
a piece of glass or other transparent material that separates white light into colors.
absorb
to take in some of the light that strikes the surface of an object. Objects appear a certain color because they are absorbing all of the other colors of light.
lens
a piece of curved glass, plastic, or other material that refracts light (convex and concave)
Anemometer
Measures the wind speed, by catching the wind in small cups and spinning.
Wind Vane
Tells the direction that the wind is blowing.
Wind Sock
Measures the wind's direction and strength. Made out of a very light material.
Hygrometer
Measures the amount of humidity (moisture) that is in the air around us.
Barometer
A gauge that shows the atmospheric pressure. Normally will indicate if it is going to be rainy, sunny, or cloudy.
Thermometer
Measures the temperature in either units Fahrenheit or Celsius
Weather Balloon
Floats into Earth's Atmosphere to check weather information. (Pressure, Temp., Height, Location, & Humidity)
Rain Gauge
It tells how much rain has fallen in an area. Has a tube with small measurement marks on the side.
Evaporation
Sun is changing liquid water into a gas (Water Vapor), and the gas rises up into the sky.
Condensation
Water vapor is combining into groups of droplets that eventually form into large clouds.
Precipitation
When water falls from the clouds. Can fall as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
Runoff
When rain is running off of a mountain and the water is returning back to a water source.
Transpiration
Evaporation that is taking water from a plants leaves.
Sleet
A combination of snow and rain, falls as precipitation.
Hail
When water has frozen into round balls of ice that fall from the clouds, Can fall in many different sizes
Atmosphere
The air and gases that surround earth. Normally divided up into different layers. We live in the troposphere.
Hurricane
Large powerful storms that normally hit around coastal areas, get stronger when there is an increase in temperature.
Tornado
Powerful storms that are found all over land. Begins when there is a circulation of hot and cold air. Normally found during the spring.
Flood
When there is a large amount of concentrated rain in an area for a long period of time.
physical property
a feature of something that you can observe directly or measure with a tool
meterstick
a ruler to measure the length of an object
volume
the amount of space that an object or a material takes up
graduated cylinder
a tool for measuring the volume of liquids
mass
amount of matter that makes up an object
pan balance
a tool for measuring mass
weight
a measure of the pull of gravity on an object
scale
a tool for measuring weight
temperature
a measure of how warm something is
thermometer
a tool for measuring temperature