22 terms

WHI.8

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Muhammad
founder & prophet of Islam, had a revelation that the Angel Gabriel came to him & told him he is the messenger of God
Mecca
city in the Arabian Peninsula that Muhammad was from, where he received his revelation from God, holiest city in Islam
Medina
city in the Arabian Peninsula, 2nd holiest city in Islam, where the Muslims left for in the Hijrah (Hegira)
Arabian Peninsula
between Africa & the main continent of Asia, shaped like a large winter boot, where Islam came from
Allah
Muslim name for God
Qu'ran (Koran)
Muslim Holy Book, contains the teachings of Muhammad, contains the Word of God
Five Pillars of Islam
basic beliefs and acts of Mulims, includes prayer, faith, fasting, charity, and a pilgrimage to Mecca
Judeo-Christian
Ideas, beliefs, and practices that have their historical roots in Judaism and Christianity, basis for Islam, including the prophets Jesus & Moses
Political Unity & the Arabic language
facilitated trade & the spread of the Islamic faith
Iran
major nation-state in the Middle East that converts to Islam, modern-day Persian Empire
Ali
leader of Islamic faith, son in law of Muhammad, after his death, the faith split into Sunni & Shi'a
Sunni Muslims
believe that any person can be a leader of imam of Islam, majority of the Muslims today
Shia Muslims
believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad can be a leader of Islam, minority of today's Muslims, but the majority in Iraq, Iran, & Yemen
Jerusalem
3rd holiest city in Islam, also sacred to Jews & Christians, site of the Dome of the Rock, believe Muhammad ascended into heaven to meet with the prophets here
Dome of the Rock
located on the Temple Mount, shrine to Muhammad's ascension into heaven, built on the site of the Jewish Second Temple, which Jesus used to preach at
Damascus
city in Syria which the Muslims invaded, first major city in the Byzantine Empire to fall to the Muslims
Battle of Tours
732 CE European Christians defeat Muslim invaders in France and stop the spread of Islam into Europe
Baghdad
Islamic city in present day Iraq that fell to Mongolian raiders in 1258
Arabic alphabet
Islamic contribution to writing. Often written in calligraphy, a beautiful style of writing.
universities
centers for learning, promoted the Islamic study of mathematics & astronomy
Arabic numerals
the numeral system of modern day (rather than Roman numerals), adopted from the Indian civilizations, Included the concept of zero
algebra
mathematical system developed by the Muslims
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