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Botany

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3 Meristematic Tissues
Apical Meristems, Lateral Meristems, and Intercalary Meristems
Apical Meristems
__________________ causes PRIMARY growth (lengthening of plant), occurring at roots and shoots, creating new leaves and flowers and roots.
Primary Meristems
PROTODERM (produces epidermis)
GROUND MERISTEM (produces parenchyma cells- the most abundant cell type)
PROCAMBIUM (produces conductive tissue, phloem and xylem)
Protoderm
Primary meristem that produces the epidermis.
Ground Meristem
Primary meristem that produces parenchyma cells - the most abundant cell type.
Procambium
Primary meristem that produces conductive tissues; phloem and xylem.
Lateral Meristems
Causing SECONDARY growth (widening of plant) producing vascular cambium and vascular cork.
Vascular Cambium
Produces secondary tissues that function in support and conduction.
Cork Cambium
Lies outside vascular cambium just inside the outer bark of roots and stems.
Intercalary Meristems
Occurs in the internodes of grasses (between leaf nodes) and enables longitudinal growth of the stem.
False
True or False: Grass has Cork Cambium?
Alterations of Generations
A pattern of life cycles of many plants where the generations are alternately SEXUAL and ASEXUAL (as in ferns) or dioecious and parthenogenetic (as in some jellyfish).
Vascular Tissue
The tissue in higher plants that constitutes the vascular system, consisting of phloem and xylem, by which water and nutrients are conducted throughout the plant.
False
T or F? Moss has vascular tissue.
Vascular
Within __________ plants is the PLOEM, the vessel that transports food, and the XYLEM, which transports water.
Non-Vascular
__________________ plants are small, simple plants without a vascular system. They do not have a PHLOEM or XYLEM.
Epidermis
______________ protects against water loss, regulates gas exchange, secretes metabolic compounds, and (especially in roots) absorbs water and mineral nutrients.
Vascular Cambium
______________, a secondary tissue thats function is mostly for structural support and conduction.
Cork Cambium
_____________, a secondary tissue, lies outside vascular cambium and cork, which it produces.
True
T or F? Grass and related plants DO NOT have vascular cambium and cork cambium.
Collenchyma
Parenchyma
Sclerenchyma
List the 3 SIMPLE TISSUES produced by Meristems....
Parenchyma
Simple/structural tissue that is most abundant cell type, found in almost all major plants.
Aerenchyma
Parenchyma tissues with extensive air spaces/pockets.
Chlorenchyma
Parenchyma cells that contain living chloroplasts.
Collenchyma
Stringy cells (ie celery) simple tissues contains living cytoplasm are thick, yet flexible walls providing support.
Sclerenchyma
Thick cells (ie peach pits), touch, (often woody) secondary walls (Sclerids and Fibers).
True
T or F? Complex tissues, Xylem and Phloem, transport water, ions, soluble foods (sugars) throughout the plant.
Phloem
Xylem
Epidermis
Periderm
List the 4 COMPLEX TISSUES Produced by Meristems (Meristematic Tissues)
Xylem
Chief conductor of water and minerals throughout plant.
Phloem
Conducts dissolved food materials (sugars) produced by photosynthesis throughout the plant.
Cuticle
_____________ is a waxy outer layer of the epidermis.
Cutin
Epidermis secretes ___________ to forming cuticle (outer waxy layer)
Stomata
_____________ are small pore openings in the epidermis, where gases exchanged between the outside air (CO2) and the branched system of interconnecting air canals within the leaf (H2O & O2)
Periderm
In woody plants, the epidermis is sloughed off and replaced with ____________(aka. bark/cork).
Suberin
Cytoplasm of cork cells secrete __________ through and coat periderm (bark) to prevent water loss.
Lenticels
Gas exchange.
Lenticels
Gas exchange.
Secretory Cells and Tissue
________________ occur in various places in plants; they secrete substances such as nectar, fragrant oils, latex, and resins.
Node
______ is part of stem where leaves grow from.
Radicle
When a seed germinates, the embryo's _______ grows out and develops into first root.
Dicots
Which plant's radicle will develop into thick a TAPROOT with BRANCH ROOTS?
Monocots
Which plant's radicle will develop into ADVENTITIOUS/FIBROUS ROOTS (that develop a fibrous root system).
Food Storage
Water Storage
Propagative
List 3 types of SPECIALIZED ROOTS.
Food Storage
____ _______ Roots for storing food (sugars/starch).
Water Storage
_______ __________ Roots for storing water
Propagative
_____________ Roots for fruiting plants.
Pnemataphores
_________________ Roots that spread out over surface of water.
Aerial
________ Roots that are above ground, can even climb great heights.
Contractile
______________ Roots that pull plant deeper into soil to reach stable temperatures.
Buttress
__________ Root's a partially above ground roots to stabilize large trees.
Parasitic
____________ Roots have not chlorophyll, thus steal it from another plant that does. Can enter plants phloem and xylem.
Mycorrhizal Fungi
Fungi that has a mutualistic relationship with plant root or rhizomes by absorbing and concentrating phosphorus and also producing antibodies for plants, and the plants give the fungus sugars.
Ectomycorrhizae Fungi
Fungi that grows BETWEEN surface root cells.
Endomycorrhizae Fungi
Fungi that penetrates through root cells, even to parenchyma cells.
Root Cap
_____ ____ is part of apical meristem, whose function is protection for the growing root perception of gravity in pants.
Root Nodule
_____ __________ is a swelling on a root of a leguminous plant, containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
External Parts of Woody Stems
Leaf Gap
____ ___ is an opening in the vascular tissue of a stem from which a leaf grows.
True
T or F? Deciduous trees and shrubs dormant axillary buds with leaf scars after leaves have fallen.
Stipules
__________ are paired appendages at base of leaflet.
Annual Rings
_______ _____ are created from Vascular Cambium producing more secondary xylem than phloem.
False
T of F? Monocots have vascular cambium and cork cambium.
Specialized Stems
Bulbs, Cladophylls, Corms, Rhizomes, Runners, Stolons, Tendrils, and Thorns
Rhizomes
_________ are horizontal stems that grow underground.
Cladophylls
___________ is a flat, leaf-like stem.
Stolons
___________ are stems that grown underground and in different directions.
Petiole
________ is stem attached to leaflet.
Simple Leaf
Compound Leaf
Pinnately Compound
Palmately Compound
Rachis
_______ is extension to petiole.
Alternate, Opposite, and Whorled
List 3 types of phylotaxy (leaf arrangements).
Abscission
___________ is the natural detachment of parts of a plant, typically dead leaves and ripe fruit.
Tendrils
__________ is a specialized leaf that aids in climbing.
Prickles
__________ are a specialized leaf which grows sharp points out of the epidermis or cortex. (ie Roses, Blackberry)
Cortex
________ is an outer layer of tissue immediately below the epidermis of a stem or root.
Spines
A specialized leaf.
Window Leaves
Leaves buried in the ground.
Reproductive Leaves
Leaves that form new plant at tip of leaf.
Insect Trapping Leaves
Leaves that trap insects.
Leaf Abscission Zone
Fall Leaves
The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible
Cotyledon
________ an embryonic leaf in a germinating seed. Monocots have 1, dicots have 2.
Flower Reproduction
Flower Anatomy
Angiosperm Life Cycle

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