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anatomy semester 2 test 2 ch. 22-24
Terms in this set (38)
the primary function of the lymphatic system is
a. the transport of hormones
b. defending the body against both external and internal threats
c. the production and distribution of plasma and proteins
d. circulation of nutrients and dissolved gases
e. the production and maturation of leukocytes
Which of these characteristics are NOT shared by lymphatic vessels and veins?
a. similar distribution
b. contain valves
c. carry the same medium
d. little to no pressure
e. all of the answers apply to both
Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are _________ cells.
b. suppressor T cell
c. helper T
d. cytotoxic T
T cells develop from stem cells in the
b. bone marrow
_________ occurs when an antigen MHC II complex appears on a plasma membrane.
a. activation of cytotoxic T cells
c. antigen presentation
d. proliferation of helper T cells
Which of the following cells is important in activating both the cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity?
c. helper B
e. helper T
The movement of phagocytes through the capillary wall called ______
The body's innate defenses include all of the following except
d. the skin
A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John
a. is feeling achy
b. has swollen lymph nodes
c. is running a fever
d. is producing T lymphocytes
e. has a sore throat
The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the __________ cells.
a. helper T
d. suppressor T
Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.
a. naturally acquired active
b. natural passive
d. passively acquired
e. automatically acquired
Which of the following about MHC proteins is false?
a. fall into two major categories
b. bind complement proteins
c. function in antigen presentations
d. allow the body to differentiate from its own cells
e. are found on all nucleated cells
Immunoglobins that are the first produced during adaptive immunity generally are
The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of
a. simple squamous epithelium
b. moist cuboidal epithelium
d. ciliated squamous epethelium
e. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Damage to the the type II pneumocytes of the lungs would result in
a. expansion of alveoli
b. decreased surface tension in the alveoli
c. a loss of surfactant
d. an increased rate of gas exchange
e. all of the answers are correct
a. create turbulence in the air to trap particulate matter in the mucus
b. provide an opening to the paranasal sinuses
c. provide an opening into the pharynx
d. divide the nasal cavity into a right and left side
e. provide a increase in surface area for the sense of smell
Which respiratory organ has a cardiac notch?
b. left lung
c. right primary bronchus
d. right lung
e. left primary bronchus
Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces
Dalton's law states that
a. the volume of the gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure
b. gas volume and pressure are inversely proportional
c. in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture
d. gas volume and temperature are directly proportional
e. gas pressure is inversely proportional to gas volume
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term gastrin?
a. causes gallbladder to contract
b. where pancreatic juice and bile enter the duodenum
c. stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
d. carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
e. stimulates gastric secretion
Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?
b. mesentery proper
c. falciform ligament
d. greater omentum
e. lesser omentum
Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?
e. mechanical processing
The stomach is different from other digestive organs in that it
a. has folds in the mucosa
b. uses peristalsis
c. secretes digestive hormones
d. secretes digestive juice
e. has three layers of muscle in the muscularis externa
The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because
a. it facilitates turning of the head
b. the bronchi are also C shaped
c. it permits the trachea to pinch shut prior to sneezing
d. large masses of food can move through the esophagaus
e. large masses of air can pass through the trachea and thus the bronchi
The uvula is located at the
a. posterior margin of the soft palate
b. margin of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx
c. posterior of the tongue
d. base of a tooth
The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called
Protein digestion begins in the
3 questions on the diagram of the wall of the small intestine
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine?
a. actively transports water
b. synthesis of vitamins by bacteria
c. absorbs water from bulk
d. storage of waste products before excretion
e. all are true
The _________ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems.
d. right extrpulmonary bronchus
inflammation of the pockets in large intestine
permanent disease of bronchial tree
reduces immune response with anti-inflammatory effects
labelling on test #1
SOFT PALATE, TONGUE, EPIGLOTTIS, TRACHEA, LARYNGOPHARYNX,
PALATINE TONSIL, PHARYNGEAL TONSIL, NASAL CONCHA
labelling on test #2
PAROTID GLAND, GALLBLADDER, STOMACH (FUNDUS), SMALL INTESTINE,
APPENDIX, ASCENDING COLON/LARGE INTESTINE, PANCREAS ,LIVER,
ESOPHAGUS, SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND
SA #1: Explain how an infected body cell lets the immune system know it is infected and describe the types of cells that will destroy them.
All nucleated body cells contain MHC I complexes which are used as self-identifiers.
As the cell creates new MHC I complexes from the ER and then in the Golgi body, it
randomly picks up peptides from in the cytosol and pushes it out onto the plasma
membrane. Infected cells have viral peptides that can be picked up and presented by
the MHC I. Cytotoxic T cells will be the ones that can identify infected body cells and
kill them by perforins to destroy the membrane, lymphokine to disrupt cellular
metabolism and cytokines to signal cell apoptosis.
SA #2: Restful inhalation is an active process. Describe (using pressure and volume) how the muscles in your torso affect the inhalation process.
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles are the primary muscles of
respiration. Contracting them pulls the rib cage up and out and thediaphragm
downward which increases the volume of the lungs. Pressure is inversely proportional
to volume (Boyle's law) so the pressure inside the lungs decreases below atmospheric
pressure which pushes air into the lungs.
SA #3: Explain what type 1 allergies are and the process of anaphylactic shock.
Type I allergies (immediate hypersensitivity) leads to sensitization of the immune
system to an allergen. The first exposure gives no symptomatic reaction but activates B
cells to synthesize IgE which will then attach to basophil and mast cells. The second
exposure starts a sudden and massive inflammation response by the cells. If the
allergen gets into the bloodstream this can lead to anaphylactic shock systemically.
Causing hives and edema in the dermis. Excessive inflammmation leads to vasodilation
which can cause a critical drop in blood pressure and lead to circulatory collapse.
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