Psychology Chapter 2
Terms in this set (49)
nerve cell. what our brains are made out of
these receive messages from other cells
the cell's control center. it receives the signal and sends it to the axon endings.
they pass the signal to the next neuron
carries signal to axon endings
covers the axon and helps speed up neural impulses
the scientific word for the nerve impulse
the amount of stimulation required to trigger a nerve impulse
chemicals that transfer signals between neurons (in the synapse)
one of the best understood neurotransmitters. it enables muscle action, learning, and memory.
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. also known as the happy chemical.
they are natural neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
they mimic the effect of the neurotransmitter. these cause something to happen.
they inhibit neurotransmitters release.
central nervous system
the brain and the spine
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor neurons that connect to the central nervous system
autonomic nervous system
controls automatic functions and involuntary functions
somatic nervous system
controls voluntary movements
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
these are part of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic is fight or flight response. Parasympathetic is calming and conserves energy.
releases growth hormones and tells other glands to release hormones (the "master gland"). it's controlled by the hypothalamus
uses magnetic fields to visualize soft tissue
uses magnetic fields to visualize blood flow and brain activity
can visualize where glucose is being used in the brain
records brain waves with electrodes placed on the scalp
our resting condition, what makes things go back to normal.
controls heart beat and breathing
filters incoming stimuli and relays them to the appropriate part of the brain
helps coordinate movement
receives sensory information. receives all senses except for smell
processes coordination and balance
the part of the brain that's in charge of homeostasis (hunger, thirst, body temp); part of the limbic system
influences aggression and fear; part of the limbic system
ultimate control and information processing center
provide nutrients, support and protect neurons. also called grey matter
involved in speaking and muscle movements and making plans and judgement
receives sensory input for touch and body position
receives visual information from the opposite field
receives auditory information, typically from the opposite ear
controls voluntary movements and is part of the frontal lobe
the front of the parietal lobe. processes body touch and movement sensations
associate various sensory inputs with stored memories
the impaired use of language
directs muscle movements involved with speech
the brain area involved with language comprehension and expression
the brain's capacity for modification
sensory neuron to interneuron to motor neuron creates a reflex
associated with learning and memory; part of the limbic system