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Bio Exam 4
Terms in this set (42)
First line of defense
intact skin and mucosae prevent entry of microorganisms
Second Line of defense
inflammation and antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes and other cells, fever. Inhibits spread of invaders throughout body. Resident Microbiome.
Adaptive defense system
mounts attack against specific foreign substances (third line of defense). Takes longer to react than innate system - memory cells
Innate defense system
Which defense system works more quickly - the innate or adaptive defense system?
Resistant to weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes and toxins.
What makes keratin effective component of surface barrier?
what does the acidity of the skin protect against?
chemicals toxic to bacteria
what does sebum of the skin contain to protect us?
what does stomach acid do protect?
lysozyme - digest bacterial cell walls
what do the saliva and lacrimal fluids contain to protect against bacteria?
what does mucus do to protect the body?
macrophages, kupffer cells, microglia, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells
what are the phagocytes?
chief phagocytic cells, develop from monocytes in circulation. Flow throughout body in search of cellular debris/pathogens.
fixed macrophages in the liver
fixed macrophages in the brain
kill several microbes
weak phagocytic activity
lyse and kill cancer cells and virus infected cells via cytokines. They react nonspecifically. They kill their target cells by releasing perforins and other cytolytic chemicals. They also release a chemical that enhances inflammatory response.
how do natural killer cells eliminate potential hazards to your health? How is this different than phagocytosis?
Tissue response to injury. Prevents spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues. Disposes of cell debris and pathogens. Sets the stage for repair
What is the function of inflammation?
fluid containing proteins, clotting factors, and antibodies which causes local edema and swelling. this contributes to the perceived pain
redness, heat, swelling, pain
what are the signs of acute inflammation?
dilutes harmful substances, brings large quantities of oxygen and nutrients needed for repair. Allows entry of clotting proteins which prevents the spread of bacteria.
neutrophils released from bone marrow in response to leukocytosis. Inducing factors released by injured cells increases the number of neutrophils in blood.
neutrophils cling to walls of capillaries in injured area.
neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls.
inflammatory chemicals attract neutrophils to injury site
vasodilation and leakage; edema; leukocyte extravasation and chemotaxis; phagocytosis and healing
what are the four steps involved in the inflammation response?
chemical signals released by activated macrophages and mast cells at the injury site cause nearby capillaries to widen and become more permeable.
describe vasodilation and leakage in the inflammation response
fluid, antimicrobial proteins, and clotting elements move from the blood to the site. Clotting begins
describe edema in the inflammation response
chemokines released by various kinds of cells attract more phagocytic cells from the blood to the injury site.
describe leukoctye extravasation and chemotaxis in the inflammation response
neutrophils and macrophages phagocytose pathogens and cell debris at the site, and the tissue heals
describe phagocytosis and healing in the inflammation response
activated when a host cells infected by a virus or other pathogen. These molecules leave the infected cell and enter neighboring cells to block viral reproduction in neighboring cell.
interferon and complement proteins
what are the most important nonspecific antimicrobial proteins?
high body temperature in response to invading microorganisms. Body's thermostat is reset upwards in response to pyrogens
what is fever?
liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc which limits microorganisms; it increases the metabolic rate - speeds tissue repair; may increase body temperature beyond optimum range for microbial growth
what are the beneficial effects of fever?
the fever can denature enzymes around 104-106.7°F
what is the deleterious effect of fever?
humoral - antibody-mediated immunity; cellular - cell-mediated immunity (B and T cells)
what are the two branches of adaptive immunity and list what they include.
mobilize immune system and provoke immune response. They are typically large complex molecules not normally found in body
oversee humoral immunity - antibody production. Activated B cell divides to produce memory B cells and plasma cells
what is the function of B lymphocytes?
non-antibody-producing cells - cell mediated arm of immunity. Memory T cells and effector T cells - Th (helper cells) and Tc (cytotoxic)
what is the function of T lymphocytes?
engulf foreign particles; present fragments of antigens on plasma membrane via MHCII -> recognized by T cells. APCs are dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and
activated B cells
what is the function of Antigen-presenting cells?
this depends on where the lymphocyte becomes immunocompetent. - B cells mature in red bone marrow and T cells mature in thymus
what determines if a lymphocyte becomes a B cell or a T cell?
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