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Patho Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
Choose the correct proportion of water to body weight to be expected in a healthy male adult's body
60%
Choose the correct proportion of blood (to body weight) in an adult male's body
4%
Insensible fluid loss refers to water loss through
perspiration and experation
When the osmotic pressure of the blood is elevated above normal, water would shift from the
interstitial compartment into the blood
What would a deficit of plasma proteins likely cause
decreased osmotic pressure
What would cause edema
increased capillary permeability
What would be related to an elevated hematocrit
fluid deficit
What is a typical sign of dehydration
rough oral mucosa
What is the term for a combination of decreased circulating blood volume and excess fluid in a body cavity
third-spacing
Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium ion
it is a cation
What is a common cause of hyponatremia
excessive sweating
What do both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia cause
cardiac arrhythmias
What does increased parathyroid hormones cause
increased absorption of calcium from the digestive tract
What does hypocalcemia lead to
3,4
What causes tetany
increased permeability of nerve membranes
In which of the following is phosphate ion not a major component
blood clotting
Which of the following would be considered normal serum pH
7.4
When many excess hydrogen ions accumulate in the blood, what happens to serum pH? It
decreases
What is the slowest but most effective control for acid-base balance
kidneys
Which of the following is essential in order to maintain serum pH within normal range
the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate must be 1:20
Which is the correct effect on the body of abnormally slow respirations
increased carbonic acid
What is likely to cause metabolic acidosis
prolonged diarrhea
What would a serum pH of 7.33 in a patient with kidney disease indicate
metabolic acidosis
Which serum value indicates decompensated metabolic acidosis
pH is below normal range
When excessive lactic acid accumulates in the body, serum
bicarbonate ion levels decrease
What does acidosis cause
CNS depression and drowsiness
Compensation in the body for dehydration would include
increased ADH
Emphysema impairs expiration causing the acid-base imbalance
respiratory acidosis
In patients with emphysema and impaired expiration, effective compensation for the acid-base imbalance, would be
decreased urine pH and increased serum bicarbonate
An anxiety attack often causes hyperventilation leading to
decreased pCO2
Young infants are more vulnerable to serious dehydration because
limited renal compensation
Compensation for respiratory system depression due to anesthesia and sedation would be
1,2
Metabolic acidosis leads to
hyperkalemia
Strenuous physical exercise on a hot day is likely to result in
hypovolemia
Which of the following is a manifestation of respiratory alkalosis
seizures
What is an arrangement of the chromosomes from an individuals cell, organized in pairs in descending order or size, called
a karyotype
What is the probability of two parents, both carriers of a defective recessive gene, producing a homozygous child (with each pregnancy)
25%
Down syndrome is an example of a/an
chromosomal disorder
What is an example of a multifactorial congenital disorder
cleft lip and palate
Which of the following statements regarding Down Syndrome is TRUE
the typical physical characteristics are present at birth
The laboratory practice of changing DNA sequences in microorganisms is called
genetic engineering
Developmental disorders can result from all the following EXCEPT
folic acid
Which of the following can easily pass through the placental barrier
all of the above
The most invasive prenatal screening test for fetal abnormalities is
amniocentesis
Blood tests are primarily performed on neonates in order to
commence immediate treatment for metabolic abnormalities
What is a lateral curvature of the spine called
scoliosis
What is/are common local signs of osteomyelitis
a red, swollen area, pain increasing with movement
Which of the following might fluid and electrolyte deficits cause in a patient with anorexia nervosa
cardiac arrhythmias
Acne vulgaris can best be described as an infection involving the
sebaceous glands and hair follicles
Which statement applies to testicular cancer
it often develops from untreated, undescended testes
Which of the following would confirm reduced normal linear growth during adolescence
abnormally thin epiphyseal plate in X-ray
Three factors common to metabolic syndrome include
presence of significant abdominal fat mass, changes in glucose metabolism and changes in lipoprotein metabolism
Hypocalcemia causes weak cardiac contractions because
insufficient calcium ions are available for muscle contraction
Which of the following is the primary control of serum Na+ levels
aldosterone
Which statements apply to atrial naturetic peptide
1,3
The effect of increased sodium concentration in the blood
increased blood volume
Aldosterone helps to regulate
sodium
Common effects of the expanding uterus during pregnancy include all the following EXCEPT
abdominal pain
What is the usual cause of hemolysis of fetal erythrocytes during pregnancy
the mothers blood is Rh negative and the fetus is Rh positive
Adolescent pregnancy is often considered high risk because of
all the above are correct
The term primigravida refers to
a women who is pregnant for the first time
Diagnosis of pregnancy is confirmed through elevated serum levels of
hCG
Which of the following statements apply to eclampsia
blood pressure is very high and seizures may occur
Place the following statements regarding Rh incompatibility in the correct sequence
3,5,6,1,4
What is the usual time period between the first day of the last menstrual and the time of birth
the gestation period
Which of the following indicates development of pregnancy-induced hypertension
persistent blood pressure measuring above 140/90
What is the likely cause of painless, bright red, vaginal bleeding during the last trimester
placenta previa
Which of the following is a serious complication of abruptio placentae indicated by low serum levels of clotting factors
DIC- disseminated intravascular coagulation
During which time period do teratogens cause major developmental damage to organs
first 2 months
Edema and congestion normally develop in many tissues during pregnancy due to
increased blood volume
gestational diabetes in the mother usually results in
delivery of high birth weight infant
Predisposing factors to osteoporosis in older women include all of the following EXCEPT
decreased parathyroid horomone
Vision in the elderly may be impaired when the lens of the eye becomes larger and less elastic, resulting in
presbyopia
Senescence refers to the period of the time when
cell death exceeds cell replacement
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the increasing lifespan of the general population
reduced cognitive and social activities
Recommendations to reduce the risk factors and the progression of osteoporosis with aging include
maintaining walking and weight-bearing exercise
With advancing age, the major change in the cardiovascular system involves
vascular degeneration leading to arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis
Which of the following may develop in an elderly patient who has several medical problems and is markedly obese
a,b,c
Which of the following frequently causes decubitus ulcers
inadequate circulation at pressure points
What is a major factor predisposing to pulmonary infection in immobilized patients
stasis of secretions in the lungs
Which of the following is/are common effect(s) of prolonged immobility in children
a,b,c
Prolonged immobility may predispose to_________in the kidneys
any of the above
The major problem associated with immobility and the gastrointestinal tract is
constipation
Which of the following apply to orthostatic hypotension associated with prolonged immobility
a,b
Lung expansion in the elderly may be reduced because of decreased
1,2,4
tissue elasticity
rib mobility
skeletal muscle strength
What is a major factor leading to increased occurance of cancer in the elderly
cummulative exposure to carcinogens
All of the following changes are associated with aging EXCEPT
decreased secretion of hormones
Theories about the causes of aging include
apoptosis wear and tear
altered protein (amyloid) accummulation
degenerative changes in collagen or elastin fibers
The term given to the change that occurs in women at around age 50 with the cessation of menstuaral cycle is
menopause
All are phsiological changes that occur with aging EXCEPT
reduced bladder capacity and incomplete bladder emptying
Which of the following factors lead to delayed wound healing in the elderly
1. reduced rate mitosis
2. inadequate circulation
3. high risk of infection