Paper 3 Qualitative Research: Key Terminology
Terms in this set (85)
The general way of thinking of conducting qualitative research, the findings are not arrived by statistical or other quantitative procedures.
A term used to describe Qualitative Data: 'rich' in description of people, places, conversations, and details.
An approach to research that says the thoughts of the participants about their own behavior are integral to understanding and interpreting the results
The act of revealing or providing information and data
The ability to take findings from one study and have the results be relevant outside of the context of the study itself
The findings from qualitative research studies can be applied to populations outside the population of the original study
Inferential Generalization (AKA Transferability)
The findings from qualitative research studies can be applied to settings outside the setting of the original study.
When the theoretical concepts derived from the study can be used to develop further theory.
No Harmful Deception
Right to withdraw Confidentiality/Anonymity
Protection from mental and physical harm Debriefing
Can occur due to sampling methods so that some members of the population are less likely to be included than others meaning the results may be distorted.
Targets a particular group of people determined by particular characteristics that are relevant to the research topic. A purposive sample is looking for people with a very specific set of traits.
Snowball Sampling (AKA Network Sampling)
Getting a sample by asking participants in the study if they know other potential participants. The current participants refer new ones
Selects a particular group of people who happen to be available. They are simply asked if they would like to join.
Used when you want a sample that represents the demographic characteristics of the larger population. You accept participants until you meet the set quotas.
When volunteers come to the researchers and sign up.
Various participant factors that may influence the findings of the research
When a participant changes their behavior to meet the expectations of the research.
When participants act differently than they usually would because they are aware that they are being observed.
Participants want to be seen in the best light possible. This may lead them to not disclose information if the participant fears being judged or viewed negatively
Participants behave in line with other members of the group (most likely in focus groups)
Where the participant wants to help the researcher and thus gives information that is believed to be what the researcher is looking for.
When a researcher's own beliefs influence the research process.
In qualitative research, findings are credible when they accurately reflect the experiences of the participants and they are believable from the perspective of the participant
Transferability (AKA Inferential Generalization)
The degree to which the results of the research can be generalized or transferred to other contexts or settings
The degree to which the researcher has accounted for the ever-changing context within which the research occurs
The degree to which the results can be confirmed or corroborated by others or other research
Applying a combination of research methodologies to study a single phenomenon in order to overcome inherent biases or limitations that come from single method, single observer, or single theory studies.
Comparing data that comes from the use of different methods
Involves the use of several observers, interviewers, or researchers to compare and check data collection and interpretation
Involves comparing data that come from data gathered from other participants or other sources collected by different qualitative methods
Involves looking at data from different theoretical perspectives
The act of the researcher reflecting on his or her own background and beliefs and how these could play a role in the research process.
The researcher reflects on their own values, beliefs, experiences, political interests etc.
Also involves reflecting on how the research has affected the researcher personally and professionally
Thinking about ways in which knowledge has been generated in the study.
Method for data collection in which some themes and content is determined before the interview begins but there is still freedom and flexibility allowing the participants to respond in more depth
A list prepared before an interview that lists themes to be explored during the interview. This is a checklist to help ensure the same information is obtained from all participants. But, the order and sometimes even the wording of the questions is not predetermined
Open Ended and Closed Questions
Closed-ended questions trigger participants to answer in a focused way but open-ended questions allow a more free response.
Focus Group Interviews
Interviews conducted with a small group of people (6-10 people).
Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Group
Where the focus group shares key features vs. participants are different
Pre-existing vs. New Group
Interviewing in groups that already existed vs. a group made just for the focus group interview
Concerned vs. Naive Group
Participants who have a direct interest in the topic vs. participants with no interest or commitment
An interview that asks the participant to 'tell a story'. There is no predetermined questions or themes.
The effects caused by the presence of a particular interviewer.
A 'connection' between the interviewer and the participant that encourages trust and openness.
Active Listening Techniques
When the interviewer re-states the participant's comments and integrates them into later questions in order to show they have been listening.
A way to record what the participants are saying for analysis later. It may be taking notes, or making an audio or video recording
The process of changing the interview into a written text that can be used for analysis.
Traditional Transcription (AKA Verbatim Transcription)
Transcribing material word for word
Transcribing material word for word but also including other features like body language pauses, tone, volume, laughter etc.
Where a translator interprets a document that has been previously translated into another language, back into the original language.
Inductive Content Analysis (AKA Thematic Analysis)
Analysis of responses looking for key themes, concepts and categories
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
There are various styles of Inductive Content Analysis. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis is one of the most common
Finding specific categories in the data through a series of stages
The process of organizing themes in data analysis
Low-Level Categories (Emerging Themes)
General, broad themes that emerge from the first reading of raw data in Inductive Content Analysis. These themes are given descriptive labels and grouped loosely into categories
New Categories where lower level categories are integrated into meaningful units
The final stage of data analysis where the researcher takes the themes and categories and creates his own interpretation of the texts in order to offer insight into the lived experience of the participants
The point where qualitative researchers have read, re-read, and analyzed data until they could find no new information.
When members of a research team code and analyze data separately and then compare their data at the end to see if they found similar themes and interpreted the data in a similar way.
Where the observer takes part in the situation being studied
Where the observer is not a part of the situation being studied
Participants know they are being observed
Participants do not know they are being studied and have not agreed to it
Naturalistic Observation (AKA Field Observation)
The observation takes place in the participants natural environment and the researcher avoid interfering with the behavior they are observing.
Lab Observation (AKA Controlled Observation)
The observation takes place in a laboratory environment
The observer decides in advance what types of behavior (events) she is interested in and takes notes every time the behavior happens. All other behavior is ignored.
When notes are made regularly based on a specified period of time
Observes participant behavior one after another in a specified order.
There is no checklist but the researcher will record all relevant behavior.
The researcher has pre-determined what broad areas to look for but data collection is not restrained to only these areas
The researcher is looking for specific, pre- determined features of behavior with a checklist that has been developed first
The researcher just observes and does not make any inferences
The researcher makes inferences about what is observed, including comments on individual reactions and expressions of emotions
The researcher observes, makes inferences, and evaluates the behavior
A theory that explains why a particular phenomenon is occurring
Grounded Theory Analysis
Rather than approaching research with a theory already in mind, this approach determines the theory based on or produced by the results of the research.
In that way, the theories are 'grounded' in the categories and findings of the research
Description (Stage 1 of Analysis)
Providing a complete description of the phenomenon of interest including the context, the intentions of the participant, and the process. This provides 'thick' field notes
Connecting (Stage 2 and 3 of Analysis)
Sorting and categorizing data into higher- order themes and sub-themes
Short, summarizing notes about clustering notes and the coding process
An in-depth analysis of a person, group, or phenomenon. A researcher usually uses multiple methods of collecting data for a case study
Intrinsic Case Studies
Case studies that do not represent anything beyond themselves.
Instrumental Case Studies
Case studies that represent more general phenomenon and any individual who has experienced the phenomena is a useful case to investigate
Descriptive Case Studies
The purpose is to generate a detailed description of a phenomenon. This can be used to generate new knowledge
Explanatory Case Studies
The purpose is to describe and find possible explanations for the phenomenon under investigation (or support previous theoretical explanations)
A holistic approach to the study of an individual or group with the goal of helping or understanding that individual or group. Most case studies have this approach.