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39 terms

A&P 2 chapter 22

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pulmonary ventilation
movement of air into and out of the lungs so that gases are exchanged
external respiration
movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs
internal respiration
movement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cells and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood
respiratory zone
actual site of gas exchange composed of respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli
conducting zones
all respiratory passageways
nasal hairs
vibrissae
olfactory epithelium (mucosa) & respiratory mucosa
mucus membrane lining of the nasal cavity
paranasal sinuses
surround the nasal cavity and lighten the skull and warm and moisten air
sinusitis
inflamed sinuses
pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
trap and destroy pathogens entering the nasopharynx
laryngitis
inflammation of the vocal cords/ interfering with vibrations
valsalva's maneuver
abdominal straining during defecation the glottis closes to prevent exhalation and abdominal muscles contract causing intra-abdominal pressure to rise
mucosa, submucosa, adventitia
all in trachea wall
adventitia
outermost layer of connective tissue in the trachea
Heimlich maneuver
procedure in which air in victims lungs is used to pop out an obstructing piece of food
23 times
air passageways in lungs branch ______ times
bronchial or respiratory tree
branching of air passageways
terminal bronchioles
tiniest passageways in the lungs
alveoli
defined by the presence of thin walled air sacs in lungs
alveolar sacs
clusters of avleoli
type II cells
cells that contain the surfactant in alveoli
alveolar pores
connect adjacent alveoli and allow air pressure to stabilize throughout the lungs
alveolar macrophages
efficient and crawl freely along the internal alveolar surfaces
lobules
smallest subdivision of the lungs visible to the naked eye
stroma
balance of lung tissue mostly elastic connective tissue
pleurae
thin double layer serosa
parietal pleurae
covers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm and between the lungs
visceral pleurae
cover the external lung surface
pleural fluid
produced by pleurae and fills slitlike pleural cavity
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleurae
inspiration
period when air flows into the lungs
expiration
period when gases exit the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure
pressure in the alveoli
intrapleural pressure
pressure in pleural cavity
transpulmonary pressure
the difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures that keeps the air spaces of the lungs open
atelectasis
lung collapse occurs when bronchiole becomes plugged
pneumothorax
presence of air in the pleural cavity
boyle's law
relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas is given by __________.
friction or drag
major nonelastic source of resistance to gas flow