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pulmonary ventilation

movement of air into and out of the lungs so that gases are exchanged

external respiration

movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs

internal respiration

movement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cells and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood

respiratory zone

actual site of gas exchange composed of respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli

conducting zones

all respiratory passageways

nasal hairs


olfactory epithelium (mucosa) & respiratory mucosa

mucus membrane lining of the nasal cavity

paranasal sinuses

surround the nasal cavity and lighten the skull and warm and moisten air


inflamed sinuses

pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)

trap and destroy pathogens entering the nasopharynx


inflammation of the vocal cords/ interfering with vibrations

valsalva's maneuver

abdominal straining during defecation the glottis closes to prevent exhalation and abdominal muscles contract causing intra-abdominal pressure to rise

mucosa, submucosa, adventitia

all in trachea wall


outermost layer of connective tissue in the trachea

Heimlich maneuver

procedure in which air in victims lungs is used to pop out an obstructing piece of food

23 times

air passageways in lungs branch ______ times

bronchial or respiratory tree

branching of air passageways

terminal bronchioles

tiniest passageways in the lungs


defined by the presence of thin walled air sacs in lungs

alveolar sacs

clusters of avleoli

type II cells

cells that contain the surfactant in alveoli

alveolar pores

connect adjacent alveoli and allow air pressure to stabilize throughout the lungs

alveolar macrophages

efficient and crawl freely along the internal alveolar surfaces


smallest subdivision of the lungs visible to the naked eye


balance of lung tissue mostly elastic connective tissue


thin double layer serosa

parietal pleurae

covers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm and between the lungs

visceral pleurae

cover the external lung surface

pleural fluid

produced by pleurae and fills slitlike pleural cavity


inflammation of the pleurae


period when air flows into the lungs


period when gases exit the lungs

intrapulmonary pressure

pressure in the alveoli

intrapleural pressure

pressure in pleural cavity

transpulmonary pressure

the difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures that keeps the air spaces of the lungs open


lung collapse occurs when bronchiole becomes plugged


presence of air in the pleural cavity

boyle's law

relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas is given by __________.

friction or drag

major nonelastic source of resistance to gas flow

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