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Pharmacology Final Spring 2017
Terms in this set (35)
Indication for Omeprazole (Prilosec)
Gerd, duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers
Action of Omeprazole (Prilosec)
Suppresses the last phase of gastric acid production. It blocks H/K+ and ATPase enzyme system.
Indication for Ranitidine (Zantac).
Gastric duodenal ulcers, GERD, hypersecretory problems, heartburn, acid indigestion.
Cautions related to magnesium sulfate and chronic renal failure
Do not give magnesium based antacids to clients who have kidney failure. The kidney that is not functioning optimally does not excrete magnesium. Client can develop hypermagnesemia
Treatment for H. Pylori. (Infection of gram-negative bacteria)
Treatment consist of 2 or more antibiotics:
Claithromycin (Biaxin), Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, or metronidazole
Usually given a proton pump inhibitor, or H2 receptor antagonist
Action of Proton Pump Inhibitors.
Omeprazole- suppresses the last phase of gastric acid production. Blocks H/K+ and ATPase enzyme system
Replacement for digestive enzymes
Pancrealipase (pancrease)- Enzymes (lipase, protease, amylase).
Contraindications for alosetron (Lotrinex)
Adverse effects of metoclopramide (Reglan)?
CNS effects (confusion, HA, confusion, drowsiness, anxiety, insomnia).
Extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary movements of the lips, facial grimacing, rhythmic protrusion of the tongue).
Black Box Warning- potential for depression.
Action of H2-receptor antagonist
Blocks H2 receptors, which reduces the volume of gastric acid and lowers the concentration of hydrogen ions in the stomach.
Action of Filgrastim (Neupogen)
Stimulates production of neutrophils
Labs to monitor effectiveness of heparin
Action of Heparin
Prevents clotting by deactivating antithrombin, thus indirectly inactivating both thrombin and factor Xa (inhibits fibrin formation). Prevents the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
Factor that promotes effectiveness of epoetin alfa.
RBC growth is dependent on adequate quantities of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12
Action of alteplase (Activase)
Converts plasminogen to plasmin
Antidote for Heparin
Action of anticoagulant
Coumadin prevents additional clots
Action of thrombolytics
Thrombolytics such as AtPase (Activase) dissolve clots.
Drug used for symptomatic bradycardia/anticholinergic
Differentiate between myasthenia gravis and cholinergic crisis?
The use of neostigmine requires the availability of an antidote in case of systemic overdose or cholinergic crisis. ATROPINE is an anticholinergic. is the usual antidote for cholinergic crisis.
A dose of edrophonium (Tensilon) another anticholinesterase drug will differentiate between the two states. If symptoms improve after the dose, it means they needed more cholinergic stimulation and their standing treatment for MG is inadequate.
If there is no relief of symptoms or an increase in muscle weakness follows, then the client is receiving too much anticholinesterase and is experiencing a cholinergic crisis.
In this case ATROPINE is the antidote.
Important nursing interventions to remember when administering dopamine?
When administering DOPAMINE, make sure you have addressed labs, ABGs, hypovolemia issues FIRST!
Action of fenoldopam
Fenoldopam is used for hypertensive emergencies- Dopaminergic agonist
Causes rapid vasodilation of the coronary, renal, mesenteric and peripheral arteries.
Main use for adrenergic agonist drugs?
Stimulate A-1, B-1, B-2
Alpha 1- constricts, increased B/P
B-1 Beats, increases cardiac output, contractility, increases pulse rate.
B-2 Breaths, bronchial dilation
Antidote for extravasation.
What type of client should avoid OTC preparations containing phenylephrine?
Client with hypertension
What type of insulin is given IV?
lispro, aspart, and regular insulin (humulin). Do not administer insulin glargine IV.
Most serious adverse effect of insulin.
Name a long-acting form of insulin?
Signs and symptoms of severe hypoglycemia and treatment.
Diaphoresis, paleness, shaking, irritability, fast heartbeat, blurred vision, headache, weakness, fatigue.
If conscious administer a snack of 15 g carbohydrate (8 oz. milk, 4 oz. orange juice, glucose tablets equal to 15 g).
Not fully conscious: do not risk aspiration. Administer glucose parenterally, such as IV glucose or SC/IM glucagon.
Serious adverse effect of metformin.
Lactic acidosis (unusual tiredness, dizziness, sever drowsiness, chills, blue/cold skin, muscle pain, fast difficult breathing, slow irregular heartbeat, stomach pain with nausea, vomiting or diarrhea.
Example of sulfonylureas antidiabetic drug.
Rapid-acting: lispro (Humolog)
Onset: 15 to 30 minutes
Peak: 30min to 2.5 hours
Duration: 3 to 6 hours
Onset: 1 to 2 hours
Peak: 1 to 5 hours
Duration: 6 to 10 hours
Onset: 1 to 2 hours
Peak: 6 to 14 hours
Duration: 16 to 24 hours
Onset: 70 minutes
Duration: 24 hours
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