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The ancient Greeks developed a standard set of mathematical proportions used to create images of the "correct" or "perfect" human, as have many cultures both ancient and modern. This set of proportions was created using

the golden mean

Rather than depend solely upon visual unity, an artist will sometimes create what by unifying the ideas in a work of art

conceptual unity

Paul Klee's Landscape with Yellow Birds and Kaiho Yusho's Fish Nets Drying in the Sun share a strong use of


The use of scale to indicate the relative importance of images in a work is known as

hierarchical scale

Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Banjo Lesson creates emphasis through?

size and placement of figures, directional lines of sight leading to a focal point, contrasting values of dark skin against a pale background, and elimination of detail and bright colors in the background

What was Pieter Bruegel's painting of Landscape with the Fall of Icarus a good example of?

emphasis and focal point


the organization of lines, shapes, colors, and other art elements in a work of art; also known as design

Visual weight

the apparent heaviness or lightness of the forms arranged in a composition as gauges by how insistently they draw the viewers eye


size in relation to some normal or constant size

Hierarchical scale

the representation of more important figures as larger than less important figures, as when a king is portrayed on a larger scale than his attendees


size relationships between parts of a whole or between two or more items perceived as a unit

What is rhythm?

repetition of elements

What is emphasis?

our attention is drawn more to certain parts of a composition than to others

What is subordination?

certain areas of the composition are purposefully made less visually interesting, so that the areas of emphasis stand out

What is asymmetrical balance?

two sides that do not match

What is symmetrical balance?

forms of a composition mirror each other across a central axis,

What is unity?

a sense of oneness, of things belonging together and making up a coherent whole

What is variety?

difference, which provides interest

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