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Ch. 4: Microprocessors ***
Terms in this set (68)
What is a CPU?
A microprocessor that handles primary calculations for the computer
What is the external data bus?
(EDB) Wires that allow the CPU to interact with all the components within a computer.
What is a binary system?
1's and 0's
What are registers?
Tiny storage areas inside the CPU used to perform calculations
What is Machine Language?
A collection of 1's and 0's that the microprocessor uses to perform commands.
What is an Instruction Set?
The machine language commands understood by the CPU.
What is the clock wire?
A wire that, when charged, tells the CPU that another piece of information is waiting to be processed.
What is a clock cycle?
A single charge to the clock wire.
How many clock cycles does it take to act on a command?
What is a clock speed?
The maximum number of clock cycles a CPU can handle in a given period of time.
CPUs today run at speeds of _________.
What is 1 Hz, 1 MHz, and 1 GHz translate to?
1 cycle, 1 million cycles, and 1 billion cycles per second.
What is the system crystal?
A crystal that determines the speed at which the CPU and the rest of the PC operates
What is a program?
A series of binary commands sent to a CPU to perform work.
What is memory?
Device that stores programs and data that the CPU accesses.
What is RAM?
Memory that can be accessed at random.
What is a bit?
A single binary digit.
What is a byte?
What is dynamic RAM (DRAM)?
Memory used to store data in most computers.
Why is DRAM considered dynamic?
It needs a constant electrical charge, otherwise it loses data.
What is the MCC?
(memory controller chip) A chip that handles memory requests from the CPU
What is the address bus?
Set of wires leading from the CPU to the MCC that allows the CPU to interact with the RAM.
What is throttling?
When the CPU slows down during low activity.
What is Virtualization Support?
Built-in support that allows the CPU to run more than one operating system at a time.
What is 64-bit processing?
A type of processing that can run a 64-bit operating system, as well as 64 and 32-bit applications.
What is the benefit of 64-bit processing?
64-bit PCs have a 64-bit-wide address bus, which allows it to process more than the 4 GB of RAM a 32-bit system could.
What is parallel execution?
When a CPU processes more than one thread in parallel.
What is a pipeline?
Process where each stage of a calculation does it's job with each clock cycle pulse.
What are the four stages of Pipelining?
1. Fetch: Get the data from the EDB
2. Decode: Figure out what command needs to be executed
3. Execute: Perform the calculation
4. Write: Send the data back to the EDB
What is the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)?
Circuitry in the CPU that handles basic math for numbers with no decimal point.
What is the floating point unit (FPU)?
Circuitry in the CPU that handles complex numbers.
What are wait states?
When the CPU has to wait for RAM to provide code
What is static RAM (SRAM)?
Built in, high speed RAM that uses cache
What makes SRAM static?
It doesn't needs a constant electrical charge to maintain data.
What is Cache?
Special section of the SRAM used to store information most frequently used by the CPU.
What is the L1 cache?
The first RAM cache accessed by the CPU. It stores the most accessed programs/data used by currently running threads. The smallest and faster cache.
What is the L2 cache?
The second RAM cache accessed by the CPU. It's larger and slower than the L1 cache and is only used if the needed program/data isn't in the L1 cache.
What is the L3 cache?
The third RAM cache accessed by the CPU. It's larger and slower than the L1 and L2 cache and is only used if the needed program/data is not in the L2 cache.
What is the frontside bus?
Wires that connect the CPU to the main system RAM
What is the backside bus?
Set of wires that connect the CPU to the Level 2 cache.
What is hyper-threading?
CPU feature that enables a single pipeline to run more than one thread at a time, effectively turning the CPU into two CPU's on one chip.
What is a thread?
A series of instructions designed to do a particular job.
What is a dual-core architecture?
CPU's that have two pipelines (cores) combined onto a single chip that share caches and RAM.
What is multicore processing?
Using two or more cores on a single CPU to divide work independently of the OS.
What is an Intergrated memory controller (IMC)?
Memory controller built into the CPU that enables faster control over things like the L3 cache shared among multiple cores.
Where is the IMC located?
Originally on the motherboard chip, currently resides in the CPU.
What is GPU?
(Graphics Processing Unit) A specialized processor that helps the CPU by handling all the 3-D rendering duties.
What is the disable execute bit (NX bit)?
Technology that enables the CPU to protect certain sections of memory from malicious attacks.
What Intel CPU's are compatible with the LGA 11 series socket?
Core i3, i5, i7, Pentium, Celeron, and Xeon
What Intel CPU's are compatible with the LGA 775 socket?
Pentium 4, Celeron, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Quad, and Xeon
What Intel CPU's are compatible with the LGA 1366 socket?
Core i7, Xeon, and Celeron
What Intel CPU's are compatible with the LGA 2011 socket?
Core i7, Core i7 Extreme Edition, and Xeon
What AMD CPU's are compatible with the AM3 socket. And how many pins does it have?
Phenom II, Athlon II, Sempron, and Opteron. 941 pins.
What AMD CPU's are compatible with the AM3+ socket? And how many pins does it have?
FX. 942 pins.
What AMD CPU's are compatible with the FM socket? And how many pins does it have?
A-Series. 905 (FM1), 904(FM2), and 906(FM2+) pins.
What socket type do Intel CPU's use?
LGA (land grid array)
The underside of the CPU has contact points that line up with the socket pins on the motherboard
What socket type do AMD CPU's use?
PGA (pin grid array)
The underside of the CPU has pins which connect to the holes in the socket on the motherboard.
What is a zero insertion force (ZIF) socekt?
A socket that enables insertion of a chip without the need to apply pressure.
What is the Heat Sink?
A specially designed piece of metal that draws heat away from the CPU.
What is a OEM CPU cooler?
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) heat sink and fan assemblies that are included with most Intel retail-boxed CPUs.
What is Liquid Cooling?
A method of cooling a PC that works by running liquid through a metal block that sits on top of the CPU, absorbing the heat.
What is Thermal Paste?
Paste-like material applied between the CPU and cooling device that draws heat away from the CPU.
What is fanless/passive cooling?
A system that has no fan for the CPU.
What is overclocking?
A process where the CPU is ran at a faster clock speed that it's rated.
What issues can cause a PC to lock up, reboot, crash, or overheat?
Too much or not enough thermal paste on the heat sink, failure to connect the fan power to the motherboard, or environmental factors such as inadequate ventilation.
If a strong smell or smoke comes from the PC, what is the most likely cause?
The CPU or motherboard has been fried.
What is a Proprietary crash screen?
A screen ( BSOD/blue screen of death for Windows and Pinwheel of Death for MAC OS X) that indicates a Non-maskable interrupt (NMI) or error with the PC.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch. 5: RAM ***
Ch. 17: Troubleshooting Operating Systems **
Ch. 16: Working with the Command-Line Interface
Ch. 3: The Visible Computer
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Chapter 28 - Key Terms