SAT/ACT Grammar Rules
Terms in this set (34)
What is an essential clause?
A clause that is a complete sentence and is the core of the meaning. If it were removed, the sentence just wouldn't be!
What is a non-essential clause?
A clause that is incomplete by itself and must be attached to an essential clause in order to exist.
What types of clauses are necessary for a semi-colon to be justified?
At least two essential clauses!
What types of clauses are necessary for a comma to be justified?
A collection of essentials and non-essentials.
Do we ever put a comma before a preposition?
Do we ever put a comma before it, this, he, she, or they?
When should a dash be used in a sentence?
When there is an aside being made that is on topic of the sentence.
When do we use who versus whom?
Whom is used after a preposition.
What is the number 1 rhetoric rule that is important to always factor in?
Shorter is better! Every word must have value in the sentence, otherwise, don't pick it.
What are the 3 categories of transitions?
Continuers, contradictors, and Cause and Effect.
What are dangling modifiers?
When a subject is described but it's not named at the proper time in the sentence. Example: Not having won an Oscar even after decades of stellar acting and extreme attractiveness, the Academy finally recognized Leonardo DiCaprio with an award for best actor in 2016. Answer: switch he Academy and Leonardo DiCaprio
What are misplaced modifiers?
When words or phrases that are intended to modify a noun is not in the correct place creating unintentionally ridiculous statements. Example: Zora Neale Hurston was one of the most influential writers of the Harlem Renaissance that moved to New York City to study at Bernard College. Answer: replace that with ";she"
When do we add apostrophes to nouns?
When it is a possessive noun. If it is plural as well then add the apostrophe after the -s or -es. Example: The photographer's hands were turning blue with cold when the snow leopard finally emerged.
What is parallelism?
If a construction is used in one part of the sentence, it should be used in the other parts as well. Example: Many students go to college seeking to develop critical thinking skills, making friends, and to learn about themselves. Answer: correct making to "to make friends"
What are compound sentences?
When there is more than 1 subject. Example: Because they live in total darkness, cave-dwelling species are able to use their sense of touch to navigate and smelling their way toward prey. Answer: correct smelling to "will smell"
What are relative pronouns?
It marks the relative clause that modifies the noun in the main sentence. Example: "which" versus "that"
When do we use which versus that?
"Which" is used following a comma and sets off a non-essential clause while "that" does not follow a comma and sets off an essential clause.
What are some cause and effect transition words that are key to memorize?
As such, accordingly, since, because, as a result, and consequently.
What are coordinate adjectives?
Two adjectives that precede and describe the same noun and are equal in their application to the noun (equally important).
When do we use a colon in a sentence?
When we have a preceding list or explanation.
What are collective nouns and what are some examples?
These are words that seem like they are plural because they refer to groups of things but they are actually singular. Examples: family, group, jury, and audience.
What is the rule when you have two subjects joined together with an and?
They then become a plural noun and conjugate accordingly.
What is the rule when you have two subjects joined together with a neither nor or either or?
They stay singular and conjugate accordingly.
What is an example of the verb tense called perfect or remote past?
Melanie had chosen.
What is an example of the verb tense called imperfect?
Valerie was choosing.
What is an example of the verb tense present perfect?
Alex has been choosing.
What is the subject form of 1st person singular and plural?
I and We
What is the subject form of 2nd person singular and plural?
What is the subject form of 3rd person singular and plural?
She, He, It versus They
What is the object form of 1st person singular and plural?
Me and Us
What is the object form of 2nd person singular and plural?
What is the object form of 3rd person singular and plural?
Her, Him, It versus Them
Do you take the subject or object form when making comparisons between nouns?
Do you take the subject or object form when using prepositions?