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Smooth muscle introduction
Terms in this set (46)
what are the three main characteristics of smooth muscle?
nonstriated (no sarcomeres)
cardiac muscle is found in the heart and blood vessels---- true or false
smooth muscle is innervated by the autonomic ns----- true or false
what are three things controlled by autonomic NS?
heart blood vessels glands
Smooth muscle location
what are the hollow organs smooth muscle is on?
eye: iris (pupil) and lens
arrector pili (to hair follicles)
each smooth muscle varies in what three things?
fiber arrangement, innervation, response to stimuli
what are the two general types of smooth muscle
What type of smooth muscle is the most common?
describe single-unit smooth muscle
cells united into one functioning group (whole muscle works together)
just as some smooth muscles are skeletal muscles are ______
describes multiunit smooth muscle
independent cells that have individual innervation and uses recruitment for strength control
What are some locations of multiunit smooth muscles?
eye, arteries arrector pili muscle
What are two main CELL characteristics of smooth muscle?
Ca++ is contraction signal
myofilaments consist of ____
thick and thin
the myofilaments for smooth muscles are _____
less regularly arranged longed and spiral through cells
For smooth muscle, there is _____ SR
Describe the Ca++ form the extracellular space
some in smooth
little in cardiac
none in skeletal
For the Ca++ contraction signal there are no ____
excitation-contraction coupling smooth muscle
excitation contraction coupling's first step in smooth muscle
Ca++ enters from extracellular and SR
after Ca++ enters from extracellular and SR what happens next in the excitation-contraction of smooth muscle
Ca++ binds to calmodulin and becomes active
After Ca++ binds to calmodulin and becomes active, what happens next?
the activation of kinase
calcium binding messenger?
what is kinase?
an enzyme that adds phosphates to other molecules
After the activation of kinase what happens
kinase phosphorylates (attaches phosphate) to myosin with ATP
Once kinase attaches a phosphate to myosin with ATP what happens?
After the filaments slide in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle what ends the contraction?
when Ca++ is pumped or
phosphate is removed
when comparing the excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscles to skeletal, smooth develops ___ but ___
much slower last much longer (more effective and needs less ATP)
The excitation-contraction coupling for smooth muscle uses much _____ energy than skeletal muscle
What are two other characteristics of Single-unit smooth muscle?
cells connected via gap junctions
Pacemakers some cells
Single-unit smooth muscle cells are connected via _____
The gap junctions in smooth muscles cells allows for ____
depolarization's to spread in waves
some single-unit smooth muscle cells are pace makers which ____
allows for self-depolarization and created a background rhythm of contraction
two tissue layers of smooth muscles have _____
opposite fiber directions
What are the two smooth muscle tissue layers called?
longitudinal and circular layer
waves of circular contraction
what layer changes the size of lumen constriction up dilation down
What three things activate smooth muscle (or signals it to contract)?
innervations (from ANS)
hormones and local chemicals (Ex. Change in PH, O2 and CO2 levels)
When a smooth muscle stretches, it first contracts, what response is this?
When a smooth muscle stretches it first contracts and then adapts to its new length, what response is this?
Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle has a much:
wider length/tension curve
new cells is
Chloride (Cl-) influx would hyperpolarize most cells and make an AP less likely to occur. True or False
What is the calcium sensor for smooth muscle?
Partly due to its lack of sarcomeres, what has the widest length/tension curve?
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