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Unit 5: Agriculture Vocab
Terms in this set (65)
The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
Primary economic activity
Economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment - such as mining, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary economic activity
Economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Tertiary economic activity
Economic activity associated with the provision of services - such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine officebased jobs
Quaternary economic activity
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information, and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
Quinary economic activity
Service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples include scientific research and high-level management.
Genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention.
Crop that is reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants.
Crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants.
First agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.
Genetic modification of an animal such that is rendered more amenable to human control.
Self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not for trade.
Extensive subsistence farming
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
the moving of fields in search of more productive soil after depleting the nutrients in the original field
Slashandburn agriculture/Swidden agriculture
cultivation of crops in which vegetation is removed by cutting or burning to return nutrients to the soil.
A series of different crops planted successively in the same field, with the field occasionally left fallow, or grown with a cover crop that is not harvested for at least one season. (to not exhaust soil)
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
practice of mixing different types of seeds and seedlings. can havest more throughout the year because different plants are being cultivated and reduces amount or risk of crop failure
Second agricultural revolution
Dovetailing with and benefitting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.
Von Thunen model
A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-learning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market.
This type of farming refers to the raising of large, bulky crop items, such as melons, close to marketplaces. These activities must take place near markets so that crops do not spoil or incur great expense to transport.
Confined outdoor or indoor space used to raise hundreds to thousands of domesticated livestock. (fattened or grown)
A simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.
Green Revolution/Third agricultural revolution
The recently successful development of higher-yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs. (GMO's)
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)/Genetically engineered crops
Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods.
Involve altering the genetic material of plants and animals to create hybrids that grow in conditions where they normally wouldn't
A process in which two crops are grown on the same land in the same year.
A related influence on patterns of settlement and land use that delineates property lines. Adopted in places where settlement could be regulated by law.
Rectangular Survey System
Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the the U.S. Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
Township and range system
A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
Metes and bounds system
A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
Longlot survey system
Distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals.
System which the eldest son in a family - or, in exceptional cases, daughter - inherits all of a dying parent's land.
The farmer has a mixed farm of livestock and crops. He (or she) uses manure from the livestock to fertilize the crops and some of the crop to feed the livestock. Farmers of this type operate with the minimum of supplies purchased from outside the farm.
Dispersed rural settlement
Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area.
A number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings (e.g., Asian longhouse)
Buildings clustered along a road, dike etc. and a narrow field behind them
Round or roundling settlement
Housing surrounds corral full of animals and is surrounded by fields of crops.
Settlements that are walled in for protections.
Term used to describe large-scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology.
Dependence on a single agricultural commodity.
Production system bassed on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.
The raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts such as leather and wool.
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails.
a farm that produces milk or milk products, and are usually around big urban areas; expensive transportation and storage makes it most profitable near larger markets (e.g., NE US and NW Europe).
Mixed livestock with crop production
A type of farming where cows raised on a farm are fed with crops that are grown on the same farm.
Specialized fruit production
type of commercial farming - Found in scattered portions of southern South America and small portions of Eastern Europe. The climate is warm and humid in these areas, making it ideal for growing these crops. Large orchards produce most of the fruit crops in the United States, including oranges, lemons, limes, peaches, berries, and apples
farms that produce large amounts of one or more crops shipped to markets far away
These farms, where no one resides permanently and migrant workers provide the majority of manual labor cheaply, go against the grain of traditional farming in the United States.
The increased mechanization of the farming process to increase productivity and profits; farms are becoming larger and more geared towards the large-scale production of specific food product
The mass planting and harvesting of grain crops, such as wheat, barley, and millet; dominated the economy in the Middle Colonies
Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year and is very popular.
Any disaster or occurrence that interrupts a farming season and hurts the farms profits for that time
The introduction of man-made chemicals and practices that, at times, have drastic effects on native soil and vegetation.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
General term for the businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agricultural industry.
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution.
a debt-reducing deal wherein an organization agrees to pay off a certain amount of government debt in return for government protection of a certain portion of rain forest/other natural environment area thing
Tragedy of the commons
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
Resources that can be restored or replenished, these are resources that are not lost forever once used. Examples include, human skills, a tennis ball that can be hit time and time again.
A natural resource that cannot be replaced or that can be replaced only over thousands or millions of years.
Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources.
industries such as agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining in which a raw product is taken from the environment