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Cognitive AS Psychology Edexcel.
Terms in this set (47)
What is the working model of memory?
Baddeley and Hitch proposed a model of working memory in an attempt to present a more accurate model of memory than MSM. Working memory splits primary memory into multiple components, rather than considering it to be a single, unified construct.
Drives the system
Allocates data to subsystems
Deals with cognitive tasks eg problem solving
Stores and processes visual and spatial information
Deals with spoken and written material and consists of two parts
Holds information in a speech based form for 1-2 secs
Articulatory control process
Used to rehearse and store verbal info
General storage space for both acoustic and visual info
What is the multistore model of memory ?
The multistore model of memory was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) and is a structural model. They proposed that memory consisted of three stores: a sensory register, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM)
Sensory store : Encoding
Sensory store : Duration
Sensory store : Capacity
STM : Encoding
STM : Duration
STM : Capacity
LTM : Encoding
LTM : Duration
LTM : Capacity
What is the serial position effect?
The tendency to remember earlier words is called the primary effect
The tendency to recall later words is the recency effect
Evidence for MSM
HM lost pathway between STM and LTM
Can remember things from LTM but cant create new ones
Goldfish bowl effect
KC could remember some LTM but not all
The working memory model has replaced the idea of a unitary (one part) STM as suggested by the multistore model.
The working memory model explains a lot more than the multistore model. It makes sense of a range of tasks - verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem-solving and visual and spatial processing.
KF suffered brain damage from a motorcycle accident that damaged his short-term memory. KF's impairment was mainly for verbal information - his memory for visual information was largely unaffected. This shows that there are separate STM components for visual information (VSS) and verbal information (phonological loop).
Working memory is supported by dual-task studies (Baddeley and Hitch, 1976).
The working memory model does not over emphasize the importance of rehearsal for STM retention, in contrast to the multi-store model.
Lieberman criticises the WMM as the visuospatial sketchpad implies that all spatial information was first visual. However, blind people have spatial awareness, although they have never had any visual information.
Little direct evidence for how the central executive works and what it does.
Working memory only involves STM, so it is not a comprehensive model of memory (as it does not include SM or LTM).
The working memory model does not explain changes in processing ability that occur as the result of practice or time.
What is Tulving's LTM?
Tulving realised that the MSM was too simplistic with only one LTM store
Time stamped events in our life that have to be consciously recalled (Diary)
Knowledge of the world around us (Encyclopaedia)
LTM of skilled behaviours eg riding a bike (Manual)
Ostergaard - intelligent but no semantic/prodedural
HM/CW - procedural but not episodic
It does not account for interrelationship between each system
Experimental studies do not account for guesses
What is Reconstructive memory?
The act of remembering is influenced by various other cognitive processes including perception, imagination, semantic memory and beliefs, amongst others
Parcels of knowledge about a specific event or object that help us process information quickly
Organise information we have about ourselves
Stereotypes represent info about groups of people
War of the Ghosts : Sample
20 British pps
War of the Ghosts : Procedure
Bartlett showed 20 students a Native American ghost story (The War of the Ghosts) which had unusual features. He asked them to read it then recall it on several occasions after 15 mins, few hours, days, weeks or even 7 years - a technique called serial reproduction (and a Repeated Measures design). Bartlett compared how the recalled versions of the story differed from the original.
War of the Ghosts : Results
Pps shortened the story from 330 words to 180 words, with the shortest reproduction happening after the longest gap.
Pps westernised it, canoes and paddles became boats and oars, hunting seals became fishing.
Pps rationalised the story, coming up with explanations for baffling parts of the story.
Bartlett repeated the experiment with 8 diff stories and got the same results
Allport black and white man on bus
WoG had little relevance to everyday memory
Not clear when schemas take effect
Yuille and Cutshall
Individual differences affecting memory
Dyslexia and dyspraxia
Baddeley : Aim
To find out if LTM encodes acoustically (based on sound) or semantically (based on meaning).
Baddeley : Sample
British university students
Men and women
72 Pps (15-20 for each condition)
Baddeley : Procedure
Each group shown a 10 word slide show
Words were simple and 1 syllable
Each word appeared for 3 secs
Interference task (hearing and writing 8 numbers 3 times)
Recall-word order only as words around room
4 trials and after random 15 min interference task they were surprised by a 5th trial
Baddeley : Results
If pps struggled to recall words in order, this suggests that LTM is confused by the similarity of meaning/sound and that is the way it is encoded
Schmolck : Aim
Investigate the effects of specific brain damage on semantic
Schmolck : Procedure
9 tests for Semantic LTM functions.
Similar pictures: the participants are shown 6 pictures sharing a theme and asked to point out the one that the researcher names
Category fluency: the participants were asked to give as many examples as possible from each theme within a minute
Category sorting: the participants were given all 48 pictures and asked to sort them
Definitions: the participants were shown a picture and asked to define it by the theme it fitted into
Pps tape recorded and their responses transcribed. 14 'raters' checked each transcript for reliability and also looked for grammar/syntax errors in the way the participants spoke because problems with language also indicates trouble with semantic memory.
Schmolck : Sample
6 patients with severe damage to the MTL
8 Controls with no brain damage.
3 of the patients also had damage to the temporal cortex generally (MTL+).
Schmolck : Results
Controls scored 99%, MTL patients scored 100% and MTL+ patients scored 78%
Schmolck : Conclusion
Clear link between loss od semantic LTM and temporal cortex damage
Semantic and episodic LTM located in diff areas
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