-Lie to benefit others -Lie to affiliate -Lie to avoid invasion of privacy -Lie to avoid conflict -Lie to appear better -Lie to protect self -Lie to benefit self -Lie to harm other
Tells us WHY people behave differently when lying
More aroused/anxious when lying
Control behavior to not get caught lying; Sending Capacity hypothesis - can't control
Negative emotions felt when lying (guilt)
Lying requires harder thinking than telling the truth
Interpersonal Deception Theory:
View deception as an interactional phenomenon in which both senders and receivers are involved, simultaneously encoding and decoding messages over time
Nonstrategic (can't control)
Examples of nonstrategic communication:
Nonverbal cues; blinking, pupil dilation, vocal nervousness, speech error, leg movement, or negative emotions.
Manipulates others for selfish reasons and has little sense of social morality. "Wolves in sheep clothing"
Prepared lies, unemotional =
Harder to detect
Spontaneous lies, emotional lies =
Easier to detect
Motivation and success with being deceptive:
As people become more motivated to lie successfully, their behavior becomes more rigid and over-controlled, a phenomenon known as the Motivational impairment effect.
Stereotypes of Lying:
-Long pauses -Gazing left -Shifting posture -Speaking slowly/late responses
Humans as polygraphs:
A perception that others are behaving truthfully
Lie bias -->
A perception that others are behaving dishonestly
Probing Effect -->
Questioning a suspect for more information causes 3rd parties to perceive the suspect as more honest
Othello error -->
When an honest person gets accused of being deceptive due to anxious behaviors
Thoughts of death often occur...
Ernest Becker -->
"The Denial of Death"; wanted to integrate and synthesis a wide range of theories and findings across a host of disciplines
Terror Management Theory is managed by the construction and maintenance of...
Cultural world views (CWV)
What are cultural world views?
Humanly constructed beliefs about reality shared by individuals in groups that provide a sense of value in a world of meaning.
We like people who are like us
When we are consciously aware of our own death, we have a fundamental inability to tolerate those who do not share our death-denying cultural constructs. (9/11)
Self-Esteem as anxiety Buffer Hypothesis-
Raising self-esteem (or disposition-ally high self-esteem) should reduce anxiety in response to subsequent threats.
Morality Salience Hypothesis-
Asking people to ponder their own mortality (MS) should increase the need for protection provided by such beliefs.
Social Death Awareness (Harvell-Bowman)-
-Feelings of isolation from family and friends -Physically being isolated from family and friends
How is nudity persuasive?:
It goes against social norms, gaining audience attention.
Picture Superiority Effect:
Pictures are more easily recognized and recalled than words. Pictures, unlike words, are processed via two different modes and can be recalled via either one.
Images that resemble the things they represent. They don't have to accurately represent them either.
The ability of images, in particular photos and videos, to document that an event happened or that something took place. They act as evidence/proof
Images can be misleading...
-Photoshop -Staged -The presence of a camera changing people's behaviors
Unlike words, pictures can't convey precise relationships between things. Can't convey logic. You might not get your message across
Art as Persuasion:
Activist art critiques society and promotes social change; increases social consciousness
Activist Art creates Awareness through...
-Interpretation -Participation -It's always considered controversial
-Potential for mass suggestion -Movies are being told in a narrative form, as stories -Unexpected persuasion
Movies can persuade________________ or __________________:
Intentionally or Unintentionally
Social Cognitive Theory:
Modeling behaviors in real life after ones seen in the media/movies
Viewers can identify and relate with a character/actor, creating a bond between viewers.
There are so many commercials competing for viewers attention, it is difficult for a message to stand out in a crowd.
Pairing a product with a favorable image, an advertiser can equate the two without actually saying so in words. Portraying a brand as the embodiment of an idealized lifestyle; this creates identification with that brand.
Push the boundaries of taste and propriety; goal is to sell products by being edgy.
Playing Tricks with the Camera:
-Photographic images aren't objective -They show one point of view (the journalists)
Social Impact Theory:
The FIRST person you add to the group has the most influence. Each additional member added has some impact, but each has less than the person added before them.
Social Influence Model:
The 3rd and 4th people added to a group have the most impact because no minority is possible with only two people.
We value a group more if our indoctrination is more severe and intense (hazing creates stronger bonds).
Steps of indoctrination into cults:
1. Softening-up stage: targeted when vulnerable and showered with attention 2. Compliance: Feeling loved, they experiment with some of the behaviors requested by the cult. 3. Internalization: Recruits begin to consider some of the demands and beliefs of the cult to be more acceptable. 4. Consolidation Stage: Recruits become loyal to the cult and demonstrate their allegiance with costly behaviors.
When people are united in substance. (attitudes, ideas, possessions) Burke argued that humans are motivated to communicate with one another to create identification
A group that has the power to influence us through the process of identification