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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
world history ap mid-term
Terms in this set (78)
African Slave Trade
the business or process of procuring, transporting, and selling slaves,especially black Africans to the New World prior to the mid-19th century.
When there is one ruler that was believed to be divinely picked to rule that country. Absolute monarchs were Kings like the ruling family in france. EX: Louis 16th
The Ming Dynasty came after the Mongol rule during the Yuan Dynasty.The dynasty began in 1368 and lasted until 1644. The dynasty stretched from the modern borders of Korea, down to the border of Vietnam over to the boarder of Tibet. The civilization was disturbed by a rule of the Mongols, and a mass decrease of population due to the black plague. The beginning of the dynasty had a isolation policy by getting rid of foreign trade, discouraging Mongol names and dress, promoting Confucian learning, promoting gender roles and basing society on the past Han,Tang, and Song Dynasties. The Ming Dynasty had a major policy toward learning. A emperor sponsored an encyclopedia with 11,000 volumes to promote learning. This was the work of some 2,000 scholars writing for history, geography, philosophy, ethics, government and more. During the Ming Dynasty the capital was moved to Beijing, and the Forbidden City was built. (China was looking to regain past ideas after the mongol rule.) The Ming Dynasty reestablished the civil service exam, and created a highly centralized govt. The government restored areas of cultivation that the Mongols destroyed. China had maritime expeditions by building ports and massive expansion ships. They landed in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, India, Arabia, and East Africa. The Chinese did not seek to conquer new territories but to establish Chinese settlements and to spread their culture.
money is invested in business to make a profit businesses should operate with little or no government interference.
a government that is ruled by the people of the working class that have overthrown the former government to rid of social classes. In communism the government is ruled by the people. everything is in control by the people. All goods and services would be shared by the people
Freeing someone or a group of people from slavery
An act passed in Great Britain during their industrial revolution by Parliament allowing landowners to buy the land that was formerly used as common land by commoners.
The way the people's voice in the government under the king in France until 1789, representing the three estates or classes, the clergy (Church), the nobility (rich people), and then finally the commons (the common people). the Estates General was the only group- that would be able to force the assorted French Parlements into accepting the new plan to avoid a financial crisis after not meeting for 175 years
The Chinese dynasty (221 BC to 204 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall, Replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country. Burned a lot of books that would be "subversive" to his autocratic rule. There was the National Census, Great Wall of China, standardization of coinage, weights, and measures throughout the entire realm, and made all script length uniform. Shi Huangdi unpopularity lead to the dynasty's downfall and a peasant family established the Han Dynasty
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Throughout the 1800's, an increased need for both raw materials and new markets for manufactured goods led various European nations to pursue policies of
In the second half of the 19th century it was a significant change in the way good were produced through the use of machines, capital, and the centralization of work forces in factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of europe, Japan, and the united states
is french for hands off. This is referring to having a government that will be hands off for business
when workers of the same occupation got together to push for working reforms such as better working conditions, higher pay, and shorter hours. people felt that a way to get what they needed was to band together.
A view on human history that emphasized change and struggle and a "scientific" way to formulate general laws that would explain events in a rational way
The feeling of devotion and loyalty to one's country; patriotism. This ideology was nurtured in the French Revolution and Atlantic Revolutions which shaped much of the modern era. It included aspirations towards wider involvement in political life and the maintaining of a culture of a region.
The Atlantic Revolutions occurred during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and consisted of the North American Revolution (1775-1787), the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), the Spanish American Revolutions (1810-1825), and even connected to the French Revolution (1789-1815)
A system in which everybody would have free access to the goods and services designed to directly meet their needs. In Marxist theory this is the transitional state between the overthrow of capitalism and the realization of communism. Socialist ideas of various kinds spread throughout the working class during the Industrial Revolution, challenging the assumptions of a capitalist society.
Broadly known as the right to vote in political elections. During the Atlantic Revolutions, the right for women to vote sprouted from the transatlantic idea of feminism. Women's suffrage (and feminism in general) became a mass movement in the United States and Western Europe by the end of the nineteenth century. Women in Europe were the first to have suffrage which was later followed by some countries around the world (1848)
The trade of goods and ideas (including crops, manufactured goods/technology, slaves, diseases, etc.) between early Europe, Africa, and the Americas. This trade allowed communication between countries.
The extension of the right to vote to citizens of a certain age
An economy based on agricultural mass production, most of which relied on slave labor to achieve profit (particularly in the Americas). Major plantation crops included cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, rice, and indigo.
A Venezuelan military leader who was a leading figure in Spanish American struggles for independence. He helped lead independence movement of six nations: Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru,and Bolivia.
The Haitian Revolution lasted from 1791-1804 which was largely influenced by the French Revolution. A slave labor force of about 500,000 made up the vast majority of the population. The colony Saint Domingue was under French control at the time of the French Revolution which spread ideas about citizenship and equality. The revolution was lead by Toussaint Louverture and lasted more than a decade. And by the early nineteenth century it was clear that Haiti was independent and the first successful slave revolt.
Congress of Vienna
1815) Met after defeat and exile of Napoleon; was a big conference of leaders in Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain and France, that attempted to bring stability to Europe and decided on future of Europe because they wanted to bring back the old reigne. The results were to try to restore the monarch, balance of power, "no major wars in Europe for 100 years" (eurocentric pov), and conservative nature
(Suleyman the Magnificent) was the tenth and longest ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire 1520-1566. Was a great military leader.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Was created in the French National Assembly early in the revolution and is the first constitution of the revolution. Marquis de Lafayette was the principal author and was helped by Thomas Jefferson. This document served as France's constitution and explained the causes of governmental corruption along with the rights of the people of France by using enlightened ideas. But this new constitution had no structure for the new government or details on how it was going to rule
Emancipation of Serfs
Occurred in Russia: serfs are the lower class in Russia that worked because of forced labor systems
German Philosopher during Industrial Revolution; ally to Karl Marx; helped Marx write Communist Manifesto. The Communist Manifesto was written during a time period where child labor was accepted along with other principles of the industrial revolution era which was viewed wrong in the eyes of Marx and Engels. He helped to shape the ideas of Communism
Mexican Catholic priest; in 1810 he lead the Mexican Independence Movement alongside with José Morelos. He led an alliance with clergy and creole elites to help aid the independence movement because colonial social classes were preserved.
(1818-1883) German Philosopher during the Industrial Revolution; Founder of the Marxist ideas which led to Communism. Wrote the Communist Manifesto. Saw history as a struggle between the haves and have nots. Thought that eventually government would wither away and a classless society would emerge.
(1868) Occurred in Japan during the late Tokugawa Shogunate; Occurred when the last shogun was overthrown and a emperor took complete power. Made Japan an imperial nation with communications with western countries/ empires and a strong centralized government.
(1769-1821) General during the French Revolution; led a Coup d'Etat against Revolutionary Government in order to make himself Emperor(crowned emperor in 1804); Early in his military career he led the defense of the National Convention. In 1799 he is put in charge of France's military. In 1800 the Plebiscite approves new constitution giving him dictatorial powers. He brought stability to the nation and reduced government corruption. Economically he imposed a fairer tax code, established a national bank, and stabilized currency. Officials were appointed by merit, and schools were government run (Lycees). He reestablished relations with the catholic church. The Napoleonic code was a Universal code of laws that included religious toleration, equality of all citizens, freedom of speech, and restriction of press. He conquers Europe besides England, Ottoman Empire, Portugal, and Sweden. He sets up the Continental system in 1806 which hurts France's economy. The Invasion of Russia is a failure and only 10,000 are left of the Grand Army. The Peninsular War (1808-1813) causes nationalism in all of Europe, and revolts against the French. He dies in 1821 after being exiled to St. Helena
Reign of Terror
(1793-1794) Maximilien Robespierre hopes to establish a Republic of virtue by wiping out all traces of monarchy, changing street and family names, changing calendars and holidays, and closing the churches. The execution of the queen begins the reign of terror. The Committee of Public Safety had dictatorial powers and was led by 12 men including Robespierre. Over 40,000 people were murdered during this time. The National Convention turns on Robespierre and he is executed. The guillotine became the symbol of the French Revolution during this time
occurred during the early modern era where Non-Russian communities assimilate Russian culture and language whether voluntary or by force. They also assimilate into Russian politics, assigning Russian nationals to administrative positions in national institutes. In easier terms, trying to make everything and everyone one Russian people.
(1904-1905) War fought between Russia and Japan over Manchuria and Korean territory. The Russian's lost their whole navy in one battle on the shores of Japan. The Russians did not even win one battle against the Japanese, which was devastating to the Russians.
(1759-1797) Advocated women's rights. She wrote the leading feminist document ("Vindication of the Rights of Women") because it leads the way for the women's rights movement. She believes women should be respected because they create the next generation of leadership.
Steam Engine (James Watts)
Allowed a wide range of factories to be powered increasing manufacturing. It was a key component in the emergence of the Industrial Revolution. It was introduced to railways and ships making transportation more efficient.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian Statesman who engineered a series of wars to help unify Germany. He held wars with Denmark, Austria and France in order to achieve his goal. He was the Chancellor of Germany from 1871-1890. He is well known as the iron Chancellor.
Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith)
1776, advocated laissez faire capitalist economies where the government did not interfere in business. Adam Smith was a scottish economist and philosopher. It explains the division of labor and how it has a positive effect on economies and technological innovation.
What were the key webs or networks of influence, communication and exchange through which peoples of the fifteenth century interacted?
The key webs or networks of influence, communication, and exchange through which peoples of the fifteenth century interacted were through large scale political systems that brought together culturally different people, religion, and long-established patterns of trade among people in different environments that produced different goods
Why did the center of trade move to the Atlantic?
The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the trans-Atlantic slave trade, refers to the trade in slaves that took place across the Atlantic ocean. The vast majority of slaves involved in the Atlantic trade were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, who were sold by African slave dealers to European traders, who transported them to the colonies in North and South America. There, the slaves were made to labor on coffee, cocoa, cotton and sugar plantations, in gold and silver mines, in rice fields, the construction industry, timber, and shipping or in houses to work as servants. It was easy for people to rely on slaves to do manual labor to maximize their profits, also slaves were cheap and replaceable
Why did the African slave trade increase during this period?
African slave trade increased during this period in order to allow the growing of the plantations in the Americas and Caribbean. The slave trade increased because of the need for plantations
Discuss the importance of the following commodities...
Cloves and Pepper
Slaves- Gave free/cheap labor to plantation owners
Cloves and Pepper-
Sugar-The sugar trade appeared in the west indies and in brazil between 1492 and 1700
Silver-the silver trade occurred between 1450-1700 Ming China took most of the blunt (see Ming China definition)
How did the Columbian Exchange impact the following regions...
Europe, Americas, Africa
Europe got, Manioc,high yield and thrived in tropical soil, especially important to Africa, Squash, Beans, tomatoes, peppers, peanuts, papayas, guavas, avocados, pineapples, Corn/Maize, Potatoes, Cacao and tobacco.
the America's got, Goats, Horses, Wheat, vines, Cattle, Sheep, Chickens, Pigs, Chili Peppers, and Sugar Cane.
Africa got, Manioc a tropical soil that help reinforce planting in Africa.
Discuss the concept of mercantilism.
The economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.
How did different regions control their empires? Cite Similarities and differences.
Mughal- Origanally, the Mughal empire was not a strick empire and allowed religious freedom under the rule of Akbar. he realized that Hindus made up the majority of the population of the Mughal Empire and let them keep their faith; incorporated many Hindus into the political-military elite of the empire; supported building of Hindu temples; imposed a policy of toleration retraining the more militantly Islamic ulama; removed the special tax on non-Muslims; and promoted a state religious cult that drew on Islam, Hindus, and Zoroastrianism. After Akbar died a man named Aurangzeb came to rule. He ruled with an iron fist, as they were desendents of the ruthless mongols. The empire was a strick islam empire with regsrds to Sharia Law. They often forced conversions of Hindi's to islam. The Taj Mahal was built during this time for Islam. The Mughals rulled much of Pakistan and India. The rulers of the empire are all decentents of Gengis Khan, the creater of the Mongol Empire.
Ottoman-The ottoman's along with the Mughals were a mostly Islamic empire. They were not as strick as the later Mughal empire, they came from the Byzentine empire which was Christan.
Ming/ Qing- The Ming Dynasty rulled by using older chinese tradions, which included confuss teachings. This was in effort for changing the old rule that the Mongals left on the empire.
Why did Europe arrive on the scene during this time period, and how were they able to achieve this dominance?
Europe joined the scene in a effort for expansion and trading. The empires wanted money and power. They could achieve this by gaining more territory and setting up trading sites around the globe in order to bring in more riches, and to sell them for even more money.
What were the causes of the scientifc revolution
1. The primary cause was increased wealth in Europe, thanks to colonial-plunder and slavery subsidized science, technology and education. It was then, just like in present times - science cannot be done without money.
2. Irrationality of the period: the christian church had a vested interest (money again) to keep people backward and believe in spirits, magic and divine retribution. Control of the masses ensured cheap labor for their fields, etc.
3. Loss of labor due to famines, disease, etc.
4. New markets in the European colonies required more productivity, giving rise to technology such as steam power.
5. When a labor class was created to man the factories, people saw the benefits and so further spurred the revolution.
6. Contact with the Old World introduced a plethora of ideas on science, technology and mathematics.
(1561-1626) was one of the great philosophers of the Scientific Revolution. His thoughts on logic and ethics in science and his ideas on the cooperation and interaction of the various fields of science
(1564-1642)He studied physics, specifically the laws of gravity and motion, and invented the telescope and microscope. Galileo eventually combined his laws of physics with the observations he made with his telescope to defend the heliocentric Copernican view of the universe
(1642-1727) took the current theories on astronomy a step further and formulated an accurate comprehensive model of the workings of the universe based on the law of universal gravitation.
Impact Socially of the Scientific Revolution
Knowledge is key in knowing the world and socially acting Politically- Changed views on the world and universe which led to differences in governing. Economically- Led to money being spent in order to do research and study past research of the Greeks, Muslims and Romans
Causes of the Enlightment
People wanted economic and political reform, need for reform for France. Effects from scientific revolution. Philosophers spread their word to common folk.
People of the Enlightenment
Louis XIV,Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, John Locke, Mozert and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Impact (socially, politically, economically) of the Enlightenment
Socially, changed people's ideas about the world similar to the scientific revolutions. Politically changed by rulers better knowing how to rule their empires. And economically by teaching more people the rules of the universe.
How did the Enlightenment develop from the scientific revolution? What did Enlightened Philosophers advocate?
The goal of the Enlightenment was to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge based on an "enlightened" rationality. The movement's leaders viewed themselves as a courageous, elite body of intellectuals who were leading the world toward progress, out of a long period of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny which began during a historical period they called the Dark Ages.
How does the Enlightenment have worldwide implications?
This movement provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, as well as the rise of capitalism and the birth of socialism.
How did new national identities both build upon older identities and take advantage of the weakening of traditional identities?
American Colonies: Created a democracy; kept rights given to them as British subjects and incorporated these ideas (rights and enlightened principles) in the Constitution.
Haiti: Only successful slave revolt in history; broke away from France; fought off British, Spanish, Napoleonic France, and internal revolution at one time; created the idea of a black citizen; made island a small scale farming industry after declaring slavery illegal and decided they no longer wanted to be part of the sugar trade.
Spanish America: Created entirely new form of society; became Americanos; some women became educated.
France: Got rid of the monarchy; the Estates system; saw themselves as starting from scratch; women asked for more rights due to their actions ; inspired more revolutions; citizenship allowed people to believe they meant more to the government than subjects.
How did the Enlightenment lead to these Revolutions?
Ideas of free thinking
Questioned the Right to Rule by Divine Right
Idea that humankind could discover more ways to govern themselves more effectively
Revolutionary leaders tended to come from what class of society? Why?
They came from the Middle Class because:
Have the resources/experiences
Education - they are educated with enlightened ideas that helped attribute to the revolution. They then incorporated these ideas in the constitutions.
What were the Social Political and Economic effects of French Revolution? Why was it a turning point in history?
Social: Gender roles stayed the same(but the question of female equality was arisen), class restrictions were eliminated(in theory), abolishment of slavery (for a short amount of time), idea of nationalism initiates, idea of CITIZENSHIP
Economic: Got rid of economic privileges of the nobility(not paying taxes)
Political: Male revolutionaries were unwilling to offer political power to women(sparks feminist movement), political clubs formed
French Influence: Spread through the conquest mostly under the leadership of Napoleon. Preserved ideas of civil equality, secular law code, religious freedom, and promotion by merit.
Napoleon Bonaparte's impact on:
France: Tames the revolution by creating a constitution that gives him full dictatorial power (1800 - plebiscite) , preserved civil equality, secular law code/legal equality of citizens, religious freedom, and promotion by merit system which is people have to earn their government position, created free education with military training called lycees, created a fair tax code, established a national bank and stabilized currency. Also he expands and conquered land in Europe.
Europe: Subdues most of Europe creating Europe's largest army since the Romans and defeating the coalitions, ended feudalism, forced peace treaties upon Russia, Prussia & Austria, rationalized government administration called nepotism
Caribbean: Napoleon's impact on the Caribbean consisted of him attempting to keep power in the Caribbean because he lost Haiti and Louisiana.
South America: After disposing of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII and and forcing the Portuguese royal family into exile in Brazil, Latin America took action and raised an army against Napoleon's, ultimately gaining independence for the various states of Latin America almost everywhere by 1826.
Why was the Congress of Vienna convened? What was its ultimate goals?
The Congress of Vienna was a big conference between the aristocratic leaders of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain and France that was an attempted to bring stability to Europe. In this meeting, the idea was to bring back the old reigne which restored birth rights and legitimacy monarchs. The people there that wanted the old reigne were known as conservatists. The congress leader was Klemens von Metternich. The results were some restored monarchs (France had a limited monarchy ruled by Louis XV111) a balance of power, no major wars in Europe for 100 years, and conservative nature
What were the social, political, and economic causes/ effects of the Haitian revolution and Latin American Revolution
In the Haitian revolution at the time it was the richest colony in the world because of the mass export of sugar. After the revolution however slaves stopped working on plantations and there was no more income. The social structure of Haiti drastically changed making free blacks the highest on the social pyramid and white no longer citizens. Haiti was now is an independent country. The Haitian revolution was sparked from enlightened ideas from the French Revolution. It succeeded because of the population difference between whites and blacks. On the island there were 500,000 blacks and 40,000 whites.
Latin America - The Spanish American Revolutions spanned from 1810-1825. These revolutions were shaped by earlier revolutions in North America, France, and Haiti. The Spanish colonies were unhappy with heavier taxes and tariffs. Creole intellectuals also became familiar with the popular ideas of a republican government and personal liberty which was derived from the European Enlightenment. Because of new independence people were not as harshly judged by birth, everyone was classified as americanos. Spain and Portugal lost their colonies which caused them to decrease in economic wealth. And these new countries formed republican governments.
What role did class and racial differences play in shaping goals for the Haitian and Latin America Revolutions?
Haitian - The grand blanc's the thought of the principles of the revolution differently than other classes. They sought greater autonomy for the colony and fewer economic restrictions on trade, but they resented the demands of the petit blancs. They sought equality of citizenship for all whites. To the slaves, the promise of the French Revolution was a personal freedom that challenged the entire slave labor system. Therefore, the goals in the classes played a role in shaping the Haitian Revolutions.
Latin America- Creoles, Indians, mixed race people, and freed blacks were all classified as Americanos. But it wasn't easy to get everyone to go along with it. Many Creole whites saw themselves as a higher rank because of their race, culture, and wealth. Leaders made efforts to mobilize people of color into the struggle with promises of freedom, the end of legal restrictions, and social advancement but not all promises were successful.
Nationalism's role in
Decline of Empires
Revolutions: it brought the public together, which made connections between the townspeople easier because of their common goals. For example, the nationalism exemplified in the French Revolution was mostly by the peasants and commoners who felt they were being left out of the government and not being treated fairly. This caused them to turn their backs on the government, together. This makes it hard for a government to rule, once they do not have the support of their population. Another example could be that during the Haitian Revolution, the Haitians took it upon themselves, as a nation, to gain sovereignty. Because they were already a nation, nationalism only drove them further towards their goals, and brought them even closer together as people under their own control.
Unification Movements: nationalism served to unite people under one common goal. Sometimes the mutual goal of creating a better home, or the hatred of the people putting them down is enough to make them want to take control and follow through. For example, the nationalism exemplified in the French Revolution was mostly by the peasants and commoners who felt they were being left out of the government and not being treated fairly. This caused them to turn their backs on the government, together. This makes it hard for a government to rule, once they do not have the support of their population.
Decline of Empires: it often helped to widen the divide between either different groups of one population, or between the government and its people. For example, in the final days of the French Revolution, excessive nationalism created paranoia that tore apart the government. Robespierre for example, had a goal of creating a French Republic, and ridding the country of a monarchy. However, when this was achieved, he felt that he would lose all of his new found power, which led him to take the revolution even farther into the Radical Age. This led to his decline when the people saw that he did not have the best of intentions for them, but an increase in power. They then beheaded him, via guillotine.
What impact did the Atlantic Revolution have as a whole?
Some of the impacts of the Atlantic Revolutions were Abolitionism, Nationalism, and Feminism. Abolitionism came to be from 1780 to 1890 when slavery became illegitimate and largely ended. Nations started to see that economic progress was possible without the use of slaves. When the abolitionist movement took place in Britain it put pressure on other governments to end the slave trades and ban slavery. But the abolition movement also led to the use of indentured servants in many places.
Another impact was the idea of Nationalism. This idea that people were united and had pride in their country was new to people. It united the people under one goal so they could improve their own lives. It was one of the things that caused people to finally fight for their rights and something that continued on after the revolutions to keep the people together. The idea of Nationalism gives people an identity and pride in their nation.
Feminism was a result of the Atlantic revolutions because the ideas of liberty and equality had women thinking that they deserved rights equal to those of men. As the middle class grew with women finding more opportunities for education so did the feminist movement.
What were the driving forces behind the abolition of slavery?
One of the driving forces behind the abolition of slavery was the Haitian Revolution, which was a revolution led by slaves. When the slaves won and gained freedom, it caused tension and fear among slave owners in other countries. Also, it became clear that slavery was not essential for economic progress, and moral arguments became more widely acceptable. The Industrial Revolution additionally showed how slavery was not needed, because people voluntarily worked long hours for little money.
Looking Back: Answer the question with a few paragraphs with specific examples to support a thesis. To what extent did the Atlantic Revolution reflect the influence of early modern historical developments?
The Atlantic Revolutions reflected the influence of early modern historical developments in many ways. The Haitian Revolution was the first successful slave revolt in history, which paved the way for arguments about the moral human rights issues that were presented by slavery, and showed that slaves were always needed. In Latin America, it injected a deep caution and social conservatism in the elites that led their countries to independence in the early nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century, most nations had outlawed slavery. Also, the ideas of liberty and equality, which many of the Atlantic Revolution leaders had borrowed from the enlightenment, became further known, and led to ideas such as feminism and universal suffrage, and gave birth to an array of equal rights movements. It also gave birth to the idea that human political and social arrangements could be engineered, and improved, by human action. The success of the Haitians inspired by the French revolution, mostly, a group of slaves, showed the true power of human action and what people could accomplish.
The Atlantic Revolutions also allowed for nationalistic ideas to become more widely accepted. Having immense pride in one's country was a newer concept that was heavily brought on by the revolutions that were occurring, and helped them fight as one for their nation. In Spanish America, the creoles sought independence from their Spanish rulers and used nationalism to advance their cause. For the first time, people around the world were standing tall as a nation and took pride in the country that they belonged to.
Why was England able to industrialize first?
Scientists had close contact with inventors and entrepreneurs
Why was the industrial Revolution a global phenomenon?
The Industrial Revolution became a global phenomenon because it benefited the economies of many countries. Also, the Industrial Revolution gave way to better transportation, increasing trade and its efficiency, and spreading industrialization. In order for countries to compete with the wealth of other countries, they needed to adopt industrialization. Industrialization lead to mass production, and a global supply of goods.
How did Industrialization change the social structure of Europe?
The Industrial Revolution Changed the social structure in Europe because the middle class that was present changed. The people who were at the top of the middle class were the wealthy factory and mine owners, bankers, and merchants. the industrial revolution caused these people's wealth to increase letting them assimilate in an aristocratic life. People like small businessmen, doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, journalist, scientist, etc. formed the middle class society. Majority of the people became part of the lower/ laboring class. These people benefited the least from the industrial revolution and in some cases it even pushed people to be poorer. these people often worked in factories with long hours, bad conditions, and a very low pay.
How did the social classes affect how women experienced the Industrial revolution?
Women were seen as homemakers, wives, and mothers. They were responsible for making men happy after working in the factories for many hours and shopping. They also were involved in activities like embroidery, music, and drawing. Women of the lower class had to work in factories and endure harsh conditions along with some men, but women were hired more because they could be paid less. Women were still viewed as inferior however this allowed them to become more employed.
List the positive and negative effects of Industrialization.
Positive: More jobs, Increase in Population, New sources of Energy, New technologies and ideas, new way to gain wealth without having land, invention of steam engine and railroads
Negative: Fewer natural resources, Increase in Pollution, overpopulation, child labor, horrible working conditions, gap between rich and poor, exploitation of the poor
How did the Industrial heighten the conditions in a laissez faire capitalist society?
Industrialization heightened the conditions in a laissez faire capitalist society because the new technology that emerged needed money to be invested into it. This technology was expensive, but lead way to mass production. The wealthy businessmen who invested their money, thought they could only profit from this technology, if they exploited their workers. Their profit lead way to new technologies and a better economy, which the government benefitted from. Therefore the government did not get involved in the new business that emerged from industrialization, because it was benefiting the country.
How did Marx and Engels respond to Industrialization/ capitalism?
They both created the Communist Manifesto and the idea of Marxism, which became the foundation for Communism. Marx expected industrial capitalist societies to polarize into a small wealthy class and a huge and increasingly impoverished proletariat.
How did the Industrial Revolution lead to imperialism?
The Industrial Revolution lead to imperialism because countries needed to colonize or conquer other regions to gain resources for manufacturing. An economic gap emerged between the industrialized and non industrialized nations, resulting in an upset balance of power. Countries were competing for wealth and power, fueling militarism and imperialism.
How do Japan and China differ with their interactions with the west during the Industrial Era?
The Japanese wanted to remain isolationists, but slowly integrated themselves into the foreign markets. This showed them different parts of foreign cultures that they eventually assimilated into their culture.
The Chinese started to succumb to spheres of influence from countries such as France, Britain and Germany. It only took 20 years for China to industrialize. Through trade, different elements of foreign cultures became evident in chinese cultures, until the Chinese eventually rebelled against foreign influence during the Boxer Rebellion (a group of Chinese nationalists tried to rid China of foreign influence). For both Japan and China, the Industrial Era brought about different variations of their previous culture. However, China eventually rejected the foreign business partners, which led to another period of isolationism.
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