23 terms

Term 3 Flashcards 2019

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colonization
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country or area, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
imperialism
a policy of extending a country's power and influence over another state or area through military force or other points of leverage
Eugenics
A disproven scientific theory that argues that entire communities of people can be categorized and assigned values based on their physical appearance
malaria
A common illness caused by a parasite and frequently transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical climates
"Scramble for Africa"
The occupation, division, and eventual colonization of African territory by European powers in the late 19th century.
cause and effect
The relationship between an event and its consequence(s)
sovereignty
The authority or right of a state or nation to govern itself
globalization
The development of a global or worldwide society in which people, money, information, and goods flow freely across national borders
fertility rate
The number of children the average woman has in her lifetime (often in a given country)
urbanization
The process of making an area more like the city
multinational corporation
A large company that has operations in more than one country (e.g. Nike, Toyota, Apple, Coca-Cola)
industrialization
The development of industries (the production of products for sale) in a country on a massive scale
standard of living
The amount of money and comfort that people have in a particular country
developing country
A country that is poorer than most industrialized countries, is usually agriculturally-focused, and is trying to become more advanced economically (e.g. China, India)
industrialized country
Or a developed country, is one that has a more developed economy and advanced technology (e.g. United Kingdom, United States)
human development index (HDI)
Is used to measure the development of a country by looking at how long people live, their education, and their standard of living
economy
The organized system of human activity involved in the production, selling, buying, exchanging and distribution of goods and services
rate of natural increase
This calculates the rate of births and deaths in a country to see if the population is increasing or decreasing
famine
An extreme scarcity (shortage) of food causing widespread hunger
institutional power
The ability or official authority to decide what is best for others. The ability to decide who will have access to resources. The capacity to exercise control over others.
prejudice
A judgment or opinion that is formed on insufficient grounds before facts are known or in disregard of facts that contradict it. Prejudices are learned and can be unlearned.
oppression
The combination of prejudice and institutional power which creates a system that discriminates against some groups (often called "target groups") and benefits other groups (often called "dominant groups"). Examples include racism, sexism, anti-Semitism, classism, etc.
racism
A system in which one race maintains supremacy over another race through a set of attitudes, behaviors, social structures, and institutional power. Racism is a "system of structured dis-equality where the goods, services, rewards, privileges, and benefits of the society are available to individuals according to their presumed membership in" particular groups (Barbara Love, 1994). A person of any race can have prejudices about people of other races, but only members of the dominant social group can exhibit racism because racism is prejudice + institutional power to enforce it.