Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, August 7 from 5PM to 6PM PDT
Upgrade to remove ads
BIO EXAM 2 Terms
Terms in this set (32)
terrestrial vertebrates must receive oxygen from the air rather than water; this problem is overcome through the evolution of lungs (specialized air sacs), choanae (internal nostrils), and cutaneous respiration (breathing through skin).
ventral (belly side) part of the shell of turtles (Testudines)
dorsal (back side) part of the shell of turtles (Testudines)
paired copulatory organs in male Squamata (lizards & snakes)
What feature is shared by lungfish (Dipnoi) and terrestrial vertebrates (Tetrapoda)?
Lungfish and tetrapods both possess internan nostrils (choanae)
What was Tiktaalik, and why was it important?
Tiktaalik was a transitional sarcopterygian "fish" that possessed features that were both fish-like (scales, fins, gills, and lungs) and tetrapod-like (neck, ribs, bones in the fin, flat skull, eyes on top of head)
Review the challenges and solutions that vertebrates encountered moving from the water to land.
Support and Movement
Support and Movement
gravity has a greater effect on the body and locomotion on land than it does in water; this problem is overcome by strengthening of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and limbs, including presence of fingers and toes.
the special senses, such as hearing, function differently in air than in water; in the case of the ear, this was overcome by the origin of the tympanic membrane (ear drum) and columella (stapes).
terrestrial animals are at risk from dehydration; water is retained in kidneys and intestines, and waste products are concentrated as urea (mammals, most amphibians) and uric acid (reptiles) to aid in elimination.
occurs in the water for most species, especially the laying of eggs; most terrestrial vertebrates employ internal fertilization, amphibians develop through metamorphosis during which juveniles are aquatic and adults are terrestrially adapted, and amniotes have developed the amniotic egg that can be laid away from the water.
Elongated cartilaginous cellular cord, enclosed in a sheath, that forms the primitive axial skeleton of chordate embryos, adult cephalochordates, and jawless vertebrates. Flexible (but non-compressible) rod that provides support - modified as intervertebral disks in adult humans
Ciliated groove(s) in the floor of the pharynx of tunicates, cephalochordates, and larval lampreys; used for accumulating and moving food particles to the stomach. Pouch in the throat with mucus to trap food; develops into the thyroid gland in vertebrates (regulates energy use)
neural crest cells
Populations of ectodermally derived embryonic cells that differentiate into many skeletal, neural, and sensory structures; unique to vertebrates
colored protein in muscles that stores oxygen
endocrine gland in brain, sensitive to light, seceretes seratonin (regulates circadian rhythm)
Lateral Line System
covers gills for protection
a pre-existing feature that is co-opted for a new function
used for respiration and vocalization
Ventral body shield of turtles; structure in corresponding position in certain arthropods; thin film of gas retained by epicuticle hairs of aquatic insects. (ventral/ belly-side) Plastron is hinged in some turtles
Shieldlike plate covering the cephalothorax of certain crustaceans; dorsal part of the shell of a turtle.(dorsal/ back)
in males - paired copulatory organs; male alternate during copulation
>Key synapmorphy in Amniota!
>Major function is protection (from drying)
>Amnion - fluid filled sac that cushions embryo
>Allantois - waste disposal from embryo
>Chorion - gas exchange between air and embryo
>Yolk sac - contains yolk (food supply) and blood vessels for nutrient transport
>Shell - protection; allows gas exchange; leathery or calcified
Jointed, moveable skull
Bilaterally symmetrical animals. Reptiles
A group of higher phyla in which cleavage is indeterminate and ancestrally radial. The endomesoderm is enterocoelous, and the mouth is derived away from the blastopore. Includes Echinodermata, Chordata, and Hemichordata; contrasts with Protostomia. (second mouth) has radial cleavage and regulative development, and the mouth forms secondarily to the anus rather than from the blastopore
>Includes acorn worms (free living) and pterobranchs (colonial, live in tubes)
>Only ~100 living species, all marine
>Enteropneustra (acorn worms)
~Deposit or suspension feeders
~Mucus coated proboscis traps food
~Proboscis retracts into collar to close mouth
~Trunk includes internal organs
~Small, colonial, live in collagen tubes
~Suspension feeders, food caught in mucus coated tentacles from collar; proboscis small and shield-shaped
>Three major clades
>~65,000 living species (over half are bony fish)
~Marine, freshwater, terrestrial
~Free living, parasitic, herbivorous, predatory, suspension feeders
>Anatomically diverse (includes tiny frogs and fish plus largest animal to have ever lived!)
~Notochord - flexible (but non-compressible) rod that provides support - modified as intervertebral disks in adult humans
~Dorsal hollow nerve cord - constitutes the central nervous system (brain & spinal cord)
~Pharyngeal slits or pouches - open to the outside; function in feeding (non-vertebrates) and respiration (e.g., gills in fish); contribute to ear and neck in terrestrial vertebrates
~Endostyle - pouch in the throat with mucus to trap food; develops into the thyroid gland in vertebrates (regulates energy use)
~Muscular, postanal tail - functions in locomotion of the body
>(= "head chord")
>Includes lancelets, amphioxus
>Suspension feeders, live half buried in sand
>Segmented muscle blocks (myomeres)
>Resemble earliest chordate
>(= "tail chord")
>Includes tunicates ("sea squirts")
>Suspension feeders, gregarious or solitary
>Metamorphosis - motile larvae with tails, sessile adults lack tails
You might also like...
Bio 101 test 3
Biol Test 3
Biology Ch. 31, 32
Other sets by this creator
BIO 101 Exam #2 Prep Mollusks, Segmented Worms, &…
BIO 101 Exam #2 Prep Cnidarians and Flatworms
BIO 101 Exam #2 Prep Arthropods