Politics 15-18 test review
Terms in this set (95)
Cooperation by 2 or more units of local govt in providing services
The us has had a tense relation with Cuba since 1959 when the regime seized what power?
State expose tires are concentrated in areas of
Welfare Medicaid education
Under the law individuals who meet certain requirements such as age or income level is what
When the first states were formed after the Declaration of Independence
Hostility toward the governors office
Which is not a solution that would allow social security and Medicare to continue to exist ?
Establish eligibility assessments based in overall health
The US has suspected that nations such as what might supply nuclear materials to terrorists
Iran and North Korea
One scholar used the phrase "the dark continent of American politics" to describe?
Operation of counties in our governmental system
A difference between the federal budget and most state budgets is that
States are required to balance their budget
Government bailouts of what and what generated huge federal deficits
Banks and automobile industry
The board of governors of the federal reserve system operates how?
Independent of the president and congress
Tax exclusions and tax deductions are used by government bodies to?
Incentivize some sections of the economy
In the council manager plan?
a city council appoints someone who acts as the chief executive.
Among the unemployed blank receive unemployment benefits
Currently four out of five immigrants to the US come from
Latin America and Asia
The commission plan
Consists of a commission that has both leg. And exec. Powers
Every year more than blank people immigrate to the US
In a strong mayor system of city government the ?
Mayor directs the daily operations of the city
Examples of attempts to criminalize homelessness?
Outlawing sleeping in park benches
In a majority of the states?
Legislative service is considered part-time work
The major issue between the US and Iran is?
Iran's secret development of a nuclear capability
The homeless population continues to grow with blank being the fastest growing subgroup
The concept of general law city refers to ?
City operating under general state law that affect local government
Blank are laws that focus on how much energy is needed and used
Local governments are created by?
The blank are the most successful example of US diplomacy to encourage peace in the middle east
Camp David Accords
Medicare, Medicaid and private insurance companies are deemed?
Estimates suggests by 2030 only blank workers will be employed for every retired SS recipient?
The item veto
Allows the governor to veto specific items within a bill
China's economy will surpass that of the US by
What is the policy making process?
government action to solve problems and improve the quality of life for humans
1) agenda building (identify the issue)
2) policy formation (how will we solve the issue)
3) policy adoption (choose policy from proposals)
4) Policy implementation (put policy in place)
5) Policy evaluation (is it effective)
has increased 20% of income spent on health care in 2020, has increased life expectancy
How does the government play a role in financing health care
45% of the total health care spending
medicare- for the elderly
medicaid- for the poor
What is included with medicare?
- includes ages 65+
- covers hospital, physician, and part of prescription drug bills
- 2nd largest domestic spending program
reimbursement caps allow for patients to be discharged quickly
What is included in medicaid?
- Affordable Care Act
- 133% of poverty level is eligible for this
- 60% paid by federal government, 40% by state
What is the percentage of people who are uninsured?
- 49 million (18.5%)
- less likely to get preventative care, catastrophic events
What did the 2010 Health Care Reform Act legislation do?
- make available to more people
- government provides health care coverage
- passed through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Conservation- natural resources used but not abused
preservation- set up isolated from human activity, protection at the cost of the community
What did they pass to help clean the air and water ?
The National Environmental Policy Act- eliminate damage to the environment
The Environmental Impact Statement- for certain actions affecting the quality of environment
Curbing Air Pollution- target vehicle emissions
Water Pollution- need safe swimming areas, and eliminate discharge of pollutants
The Endangered Species Act
used to protect and recover species and the ecosystems in which they live
Global Climate Change
Kyoto Protocol- working on binding emission reduction targets
Global Warming Debate- is this being caused by human behavior
focus on issues with energy like foreign oil problems, oil spills, coal emissions
trying to find more ways to make it safer other than the unpopular solution of nuclear power
The Low-Income Population
- about 46.5 b=million Americans
- average income was 23, 550 for a family of four
The Antipoverty Budget
difficult to determine this legislation
What is TANF?
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
- this turned welfare to the states
- helps with death, disability, absence of parent, unemployment
- block grants
Controversies of Welfare?
some say that families are worse off after leaving welfare because they are unable to retain a job
there is also the question if the money is going to the right place, what about child care or working poor families
What are other forms of government assistance?
Earned Income Tax Credit
Supplemental Security Income- minimum income for these elderly and disabled who do not qualify for Social Security
Influence of Minority Groups
- collectively will be a majority by 2060
- beneficial to low birthrate and aging population
Attempts on Immigration Reform
- physical and virtual fences
- tighter regulations
- border state restrictions
- DREAM Act (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors), allowed immigrant children to go to school in US
Economic Recession of 2008
quick to get, hard to get back out
The repealed Glass Steagall Act in 1999
Banks and Lawmakers were finding loopholes, Clinton signed the Gramm-Leech-Bliley which repealed key components of the Act
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
bill created to help the US economy recover from an economic downturn that began in late 2007. It was developed to preserve and create jobs and promote economic recovery
What ended Laissez-faire and dual federalism?
great depression which also affected the unemployment insurance and social security
Consumer price index
variation of prices paid by typical consumers for retail goods and other items
natural rise or drop in domestic product, tool that helps analyze the economy
Fiscal and Monetary policy
F- collective term for the taxing and spending actions of governments
M- concerned with the management of interest rates and total supply of money in circulation, generally carried out by central banks (federal reserve)
Economic Theory Guides Policy
Laissez-faire economics- Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, free competition, government should not interfere with the economy, low taxes, free trade
Keynesian Economic Theory- John Keynes, government should manipulate economy to reverse downturns, deficit spending, New Deal, Great depression
Supply-side Economics- government could raise more money by cutting taxes, it would stimulate economic growth, reaganeconomics
How did democrats and republicans feel with economic policy?
Dem: prop up lower classes, educating them will help the economy
Rep: "trickle down"
how we interact with other countries
- economic aid
- technical assistance
- Military intervention
National Security Policy
document prepared periodically by the executive branch of government of the United States for Congress which outlines the major national security concerns of the United States and how the administration plans to deal with them.
Foreign and Defense Policy
includes organizations that focus on relations between the US and rest of the world. Organizations that national security initiatives and other defense-related policies, as well as individual countries, are included
Constitutional Powers of the President
preserve, protect, and defend the constitution
war powers- sending of troops without congressional authority and covert ops
-appointment and recognize foreign governments
requires consultation with the Secretary of State before any international agreement may be signed or concluded on behalf of the United States.
"round the flag effect"
increased short-run popular support of the President of the United States during periods of international crisis or war.
Department of State
- advises the President
- leads the nation in foreign policy issues
- negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities
- represents the United States at the United Nations.
The National Security Council
advise president of national security and foreign policies
The Intelligence Community
federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
- people have concerns with civil liberties
The Department of Defense
executive branch department of the federal government that coordinates and supervises all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
War Powers Resolution
limited the presidential authority to use troops without congressional approval
limiting or denying presidential requests
Interest Groups in Global Affairs
-has increase since WW2
Moralist Foreign Policy
support is given to countries whose moral beliefs are similar to the nation (Truman, Bush, Obama)
Realist Foreign Policy
The Monroe Doctrine
- opposed European colonialism,
- isolationist foreign policy- isolating the affairs of other nations, ended by the Spanish American War and WW1, officially broke with Pearl Harborafter WW1
adopted by Truman, focus on principle that communist governments will eventually fall apart as long as they prevented from expanding their influence
purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.
A period of Detente
SALT 1- stabilizes the nuclear arms competition, and ballistic missles
The Reagan Bush Years
reduction in nuclear arms
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
annexation of Ukraine and Crimea
War of Terror
international miltiary campaign
premeptive war- repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war
threat of terorism, nuclear weapons, over 17,000 in the world
The Necessary War
taliban and afghanistan
Conflicts of the US and the Region
-central and south america
war on HIV/ AIDS in Africa
What are things the states can do?
-may do anything not prohibited by constitution
-may have law that federal government does not have
-state constitutions are so long because they are less open to interpretation
how many votes cast for the governor
5-10% of total votes
Powers of the governor
veto power- depends on state
item veto (43 states), illegal on federal level
low pay, trivial matters, few resources
23 states pay less than 20,000 a year
establishing an advantage for a political party by manipulating district boundaries
How many states have term limits for state legislators
initiative, referendum, and recall
three powers reserved to enable the voters, by petition, to propose or repeal legislation or to remove an elected official from office.
The trial courts
3/4 of states have these
Home Rule City
General Law City
only exercise powers expressively granted by state government
charters are granted to municipalities
cities govern themselves
First class city, needs 2,500 people
Second class city
Four Local Government Units
Municipalities- govern themselves, set up by people, small cities (> 1,900)
Counties- set up by state to administer state law and business at the local level (>3,000)
Towns- New England Town, combine role of city and county, town meetings, many converting to town-manager system
Townships- operate like counties at a lower level, Midwest, (>16,000)
How Municipalities are governed
The commission plan- 3-9 members with legislative and executive powers (100)
The council Manager Plan- city council appoints a professional manager chief exec (3,600)
The Mayor Administration plan- similar to council manager, mayor elected, free the mayor from routine tasks
The Mayor Council Plan- most used
Race to the Top and NCLB
- education initiatives to reform educational systems
NCLB held schools and teachers responsible for children's education
State and Local Government Revenues
-general sales tax (state level)
-property tax (local level)
-states compete for residants
Struggle with states balancing the budget
-all states must balance the budget besides Vermont
-getting into trouble, borrowing too much
-getting into trouble poor productvity
-getting into trouble health care costs