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Mr. Hetherington Chapter 23 History Terms, People, Places
Terms in this set (49)
"Old Regime" the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France.
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
(Great Fear) and general panic at the start of the revolution to shortage of grain and peasant revolts.
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
the National Assembly's adopted statement of revolutionary ideals, reflecting influence of Declaration of Independence - rights included liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression - guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion
a person who leaves their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an need to food shortages
Angry and fearful citizens raided the prisons and murdered over 1,000 prisoners. Many nobles, priests, and royalist sympathizers fell victim to the angry mobs because of Rumors that supporters of the king held in Paris prisons planned to break out and seize control of the city.
a machine for beheading people used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
Levee en Masse
In response to reverses at the hands of the First Coalition, the Revolutionary government declared this, by which all Frenchmen were placed at the disposal of the army.
Reign of Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilian Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
a government-run public school in France
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again became emperor of France.
Balance of Power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens Von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain.
(r.1774 - 1793) wanted to govern well; inherited a considerable debt,borrowed heavily; lacked forceful personality, no will power, ignored advice of government advisers - no patience for details of governing
meddled in government affairs, gave bad advice; member of Austrian royal family (bitter French enemy); unpopular with the French b/c spent lavish amounts of money on frivolous items
(1748 - 1836) clergyman; spoke for 3rd Estate; suggested 3rd Estate name selves "National Assembly" to pass laws and reforms in name of French people
Olympe de Gouges
published declaration of rights of women; was declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed
The most radical political faction of the French Revolution who ruled France during the Reign of Terror. made up majority of those involved in government changes in 1792
One of the most prominent Jacobins; edited newspaper - L'Ami du Peuple; called for death of king's supporters; thin, high-strung, sickly man whose revolutionary writings stirred up the violent mood in Paris
porter of a rival faction whose members had been jailed, gained an audience with Marat by pretending to have information about traitors. Once inside Marat's private chambers, she fatally stabbed him as he bathed. For her crime, she went to the guillotine
awyer; talented/passionate speaker; known for his devotion to the rights of Paris's poor people
(1758 - 1794) Reign of Terror; changed French calendar; ruled France as virtual dictator for a year; leader of Committee of Public Safety; guillotined
recognized as one of the world's greatest military geniuses. Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
led a civil war that enslaved Africans seized control of the colony
British admiral that was one of Napoleon's biggest rivals and defeated him in the Battle of Trafalgar
Duke of Wellington
Jacques Louis David
painting shows Napoleon in heroic pose
Klemens von Metternich
1773 - 1859) foreign minister of Austria; distrusted democratic ideals of French Revolution; had most influence and 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna
(July 14) a mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed the ______, a Paris prison. The fall of the _______ became a great symbolic act of rev- olution to the French people.
Town in north-east France where Louis and Marie-Antoinette were captured trying to escape the country.
French army defeated Austrian/Prussian forces
a battle in which Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Ottoman army on 25 July 1799, during the French campaign in Egypt.
the greatest French victory during the Napoleonic era in which both Austria and Prussia are defeated
site of the only major battle that Napoleon Bonaparte lost in his drive for a European empire
(October 1813) Europeans crushed French forces
a tiny island off the Italian coast to which Napoleon Bonaparte was exiled
British and the Prussian forces attacked the French. Two days later, Napoleon's exhausted troops gave way. This defeat ended Napoleon's last bid for power (Hundred Days)
Area where Napoleon was exiled (the second time), where Napoleon eventually died
Capital of Austria. Where the peace conference was held after the end of the Napoleonic wars.
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