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Terms in this set (62)
447 - 438BC
Iktinos and Kallikrates supervised by Pheidias
Pentellic marble, limestone, terracotta, wood
It served two main purposes. First, the temple was built as a monument to Athena, and therefore a statue of Athena was built. Second, it was also a part of the state treasury. Tax money from the Delian League was used to pay for the building, and therefore a portion of the building was used for holding the tax money that the Delian League collected.
Order of the temple?
Where it is on the Acropolis?
South of the acropolis
What is unusual about the Doric columns that surrounded the Parthenon?
The columns of the interior plan of the pronaos and Opisthodomos are not in antis (space between wall). There are usually 4 columns in the interior but this one has 6 columns.
How is the stylobate unusual?
It has a slight upward curve
Why did architects design Doric columns and the stylobate in this way?
It gave the statue an optical illusion but it may have been done to overcome the optical illusion that other planners had felt was productive when the straight lines and angles were viewed from a distance.
Why were the 4 corner columns slightly thicker than the other Doric columns and why there is a smaller gap between them and their neighbours
The columns are slightly thicker than other columns to lesson the visual gap created when viewing them against the sky. They placed closer to the column next to them than normal.
69.5m × 30.88 m (Stylobate)
Peripteral, 8 columns × 17 columns
What is the 9:4 ratio?
It was a golden ratio- provided sense at balance and harmony. The length is almost twice the width - 9:4 ratio
Why did architects use both Doric and Iconic features in design?
To make building more visually appealing
What was he innovation that had to do with lighting?
The pool acted as a mirror/reflector to emphaise the light inside.
This is an 'octastyle peripteral' temple. Explain what this description means.
• Octastyle means that there are eight columns across the front.
• Peripteral means that there is a peristyle / colonnade surrounding the temple.
Explain in detail THREE design or decorative features of the interior of the main naos.
(1) In front of the statue was a pool of water that reflected the statue.
(2) There were two rows of Doric columns, in two tiers supporting the roof.
(3) The columns behind the statue had no architectural function, but were a decorative frame to the statue.
Name three Ionic features of the temple
(1) The continuous frieze on the exterior of the building inside the colonnade is Ionic.
(2) Ionic columns are used in the interior of the western naos.
(3) The columns of the colonnade are taller and more slender than typical Doric
Give FOUR ways in which the architects have attempted to avoid the solidity and heaviness typically associated with Doric temples
(1) The height of the columns was greater in relation to their breadth than was usual, so that they appear more slender.
(2) The parts of the structure above the columns were kept low.
(3) The curvature of the platform (stylobate) on which the temple stands, so that it is slightly higher in the centre.
(4) The columns do not stand vertical, but lean slightly inwards from bottom to top.
What was unique about the dimensions and proportions of the naos?
The proportion between length and width was slightly greater than two to one.
How was its length and height related to its purpose?
It was long and tall to hold a statue.
What was unique about the columns around the pronaos?
They were Ionic, not Doric.
What was unique about the 8 x 17 columns?
Each side had twice-plus-one the number of columns at each end.
What were some of the optical illusions used to make them appear more graceful?
Each exterior column has a very slight bulge in the middle. Also, the upper diameter of each is slightly narrower than its base diameter. Columns slant inward.
What was the peristyle?
The colonnade running around the naos and supporting its roof
What optical refinements were used? Why?
The three levels of the crepidoma are slightly domed in the center because purely horizontal lines would have appeared to dip in the middle.
What are the entablature, frieze, triglyph, and metope?
The entablature is the stretch of wall between the tops of the columns and the roof;
The frieze is the horizontal band running along the wall, just under the cornice.
There were two parts of the frieze: the triglyphs, or blocks with vertical grooves, and metopes, or rectangular areas.
Wat is innovative about the Parthenon Frieze?
Has one main theme that runs along the side
When was the Frieze carved?
442- 438 BCE
What was the Great Panathenaia?
Was the most important festival for Athens and one of the grandest in the entire ancient Greek world.
This holiday of great antiquity is believed to have been the observance of Athena's birthday and honored the goddess
What connection does the Great Panathenaia have to the Parthenon, Acropolis and statue of Athene Polis which is housed in the Erectheion?
What is the significance of the Peplos that is being folded in the scene from the east Frieze?
Given to amen that the citizens daughters would have woven.
How do we know the seated figures from the east frieze are gods?
They are larger then the those standing therefore they must be important.
What are the 4 types of sculptures found on the Parthenon?
Pediments, Metopes, Frieze and Cult statue
Who directed the overall sculpture work?
How much freedom did the individual sculptors have?
Metopes - Loose supervision therefore more freedom.
Frieze- Instructions on placing and grouping was supervised on the uniqueness of the Frieze.
When were the pediment sculptures made?
438 - 431 BC
What did the eastern and western pediments have in common?
The west pediment contained statues depicting the struggle between Athena and Poseidon for the land of Attica. The eastern was the birth of Athena
Why were the pediments last to be made?
They had to be put in when the temple was complete.
How had the Parthenon sculptors been damaged over the years?
When Parthenon was converted to Christian church and the when Venetians scored a direct hit on the Parthenon with their canon.
What is depicted in the eastern pediment?
During the reign of King Kekrops Athene and Poseidon competed for the patronage of Athens. Both gods demonstrated their power. Both pediments emphaise superiority of Athena and thus by implication the superiority of Athens among other city states in Greece.
What is depicted in the western pediment?
Subject matter of this pediment is birth of Athena when Hephaestus strikes the head of Zeus and out of his head comes Athena fully formed. The subject matter is appropriate since it corresponds to the top of the Panathenaic process which occurred on Athena's Birthday. The donation of the peplos at the centre of the east side of the procession is surrounded by a group of gods/goddess flanking the birth of Athena on the east pediment. The east end is also given more privilege by appearance of the battle of the gods and giants in the metopes
What did archaeologists find at each pediment?
Sculptures of two mythological scenes: The east end shows the birth of Athena; the west end shows Athena and Poseidon fighting over the name of the city.
How were these sculptures decorated?
They were painted bright colors
How many metopes could be found around the Parthenon?
92. There were 32 along each side, and 14 along each end.
What was shown on the north, south, west and east side of the metopes ?
The north side depicted scenes of the Trojan War, the south side featured battles between Greeks and Centaurs, the west side featured battles between Greeks and Amazons, and the east side depicted Olympian gods fighting giants. Each metope was separated from the next by a decorative strip called a tryglyph.
What is the overall symbol of the metopes?
All the metopes show the victory of Greece or of the civilised gods over various barbarians (Amazons, Trojans, Giants and Centars). This represents the victory of the Greeks (and Athens) over Persians.
What is the statue of Athene made of?
The combination of gold and ivory known as Chryselephantine.
Ivony is used for the skin and God is used for the drapery.
Where is it placed in the Parthenon?
What happened to the original Athene statue?
It got destoryed after the fail of the Roman empire. This was known from descriptions
How tall was the Athene statue?
What does the Athene statue look like
-Athena stands with a shield, helmet and spear.
-She holds in her outstretched hand a winged nike figure.
-There is a snake between the shield and goddess.
- One leg pushes through the drapery to reveal her knee.
- The other leg bears out the weight and the drapery falls around it like columns.
- She wears a bib decorated with snakes across her breast.
- This was in ivory with the gorgoneion (head of medusa) at the centre.
- The helmet is crested with the the spinx at the centre and on either side a representation of Pegasus
How were the columns decorated?
Ionic columns were gilded, had glass beads, elaborate bases and floral decor under the capital
Name four refinements made to the parthenon
1. the corner columns are closer together
2. the four sides have a slight upward curve-swell of the columns- as well as the floor (Entasis)
3.The frieze at the front was carved deeper at the top so that it was easier to see
4.The lean of the columns-giving the illusion that they were infact straight
Two architectual features of the main cella(naos) of the parthenon:
1. The reflecting pool, this reflects the gold throughout the temple
2. the smaller doric columns so that there was more room within the cella-double colonnade
How was the parthenon damaged in later years?
When it was converted into a christian church, then later into a mosque
How was the Frieze decorated?
With bright colours and metal attachments to weapons and harnessess
What did the subject matter of the metopes represent in the parthenon?
Representing victory of Greeks over the Persians
How were the pediments different from the metopes and frieze on the parthenon?
They were carved in 3D-they were not carved in relief-their backs which could not be seen were still carved.
What stories where there on the pediments of the Parthenon?
On the East: Gods resting after the birth of Athena and the West: (as you walk in) Battle of Athena and Poseidon over the patronage of Athens
What made decorating he pediments difficult?
The artists were aiming at a high degree of realism and it would be hard to sculpt the front without accurate reference to the back.
What new innovations were developed for the decoration?
We have figures rising and descending. Also the sense of movement and space gives a new sense of space in the awkward corners. They set quite freely and it was also crowded.
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