CPD Abdominal Diseases
Terms in this set (73)
Review abdominal quadrants.
What 2 transverse lines divide the abdomen into 9 regions?
Subcostal & suprailiac
What is the vertebral level of the umbilicus?
- bifurcation of the aorta
What is the vertebral level of the aorta?
How does malena differentiate (in terms of odor) from blood-colored stools?
malena presents with a much more foul-smelling stool because of the breakdown of hemosiderin
Frank blood in stool
What "grade" fever is associated with acute appendicitis?
What part of the gut is located in the periumbilical region?
Review abdominal pain chart.
Rupture of what GI organ causes radiation of pain to the left shoulder?
Review causes of upper GI bleeding.
What disorder leads to numerous spider nevi?
Review abdominal examination findings.
Why does percussion of the kidneys result in a tympanic note?
the intestines surround the kidneys
What are the steps in order in the examination of the abdomen?
- avoid disturbing the normal flora.
List 2 causes of acute liver disease.
infection (virus, bacteria, parasites)
toxic compounds (alcohol, drugs, overdose or side effects)
List 5 prodromal symptoms of acute liver disease.
List 5 decompensation symptoms of acute liver disease.
List 2 signs of acute liver disease.
smooth tender liver enlargement
List causes of chronic liver disease.
List symptoms of chronic liver disease.
loss of weight
List 4 chronic liver disease signs on the face.
List chronic liver disease signs on the hands.
List chronic liver disease signs on the trunk.
List 5 abdominal signs of chronic liver disease.
abnormal liver span (small or large)
What is the size of the lateral and medial lobes of the liver?
lateral: 8-12 cm
medial: 4-6 cm
Does Duputyren's contracture present unilaterally or bilaterally in abdominal disease?
- systemic disorder
Sign of chronic anemia that presents on the nails.
White nail beds due to decreased albumin synthesis in liver disease
Small pin-head hemorrhagic spots above the nipple line, face, and neck along the path of the superior vena cava due to dilatation of the capillaries
What causes white stretch marks?
What causes purple stretch marks?
What causes black stretch marks?
Review ascites pathogenesis.
List 5 causes of transudate ascites.
List 2 causes of exudate ascites.
malignancy (esp. colon, ovary, pancreas, stomach)
Review shifting dullness and fluid wave tests.
List specific bacterial, viral, parasitic, and protozoal infections that cause splenomegaly.
List 2 lymphoreticular causes of splenomegaly.
chronic myeloid leukemia
Why should one avoid palpating an enlarged spleen?
What type of hypertension causes splenomegaly?
List 3 metabolic disorders that cause splenomegaly.
What type of anemia is associated with splenomegaly?
sickle cell disease
What is the most common cause of acute cholecystitis?
stones impacted in cystic duct (90%)
Cholecystitis that presents in critically ill patients who have not had oral intake for prolonged periods of time
Describe the referred pain in acute cholecystitis.
right upper quadrant radiating to the back
Describe Boas' sign.
scratching around the right scapula in the 9th-10th intercostal space results in irritation and hypersensitivity
- sign of acute cholecystitis
Review acute cholecystitis differential diagnoses.
List 5 symptoms of acute appendicitis.
pain (central moving after a few hours to the right iliac fossa)
List signs of acute appendicitis.
fever (low grade)
tenderness (McBurney's point)
Rovsing's sign: pressing in the iliac fossa leads to pain in the right iliac fossa upon release.
high rectal tenderness: important for ruling out differentials.
Review common findings in rectal examination.
List 3 acute appendicitis differentials in young women.
List 3 acute appendicitis differentials in males and females.
List the 2 most common cause of acute pancreatitis.
Describe the referred pain in acute pancreatitis.
epigastric pain that radiates to the back
How can one differentiate between gastritis and acute pancreatitis?
blood test for amylase
blueish discoloration around the umbilicus
- acute pancreatitis
Grey Turner's sign
blueish discoloration around the flanks due to accumulation of blood
List 2 signs for acute pancreatitis.
Grey Turner's sign
List 3 complications of acute pancreatitis.
What disorder should be suspected if a patient presents with jaundice and a palpable painful gall bladder?
- Courvoisier's law
List the most common causes of peptic ulcers.
List 3 symptoms of peptic ulcer.
List 3 complications of peptic ulcers.
What endocrine disorder is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
Review generalized peritonitis.
What type of ulcer is associated with pain occurring 1/2 to 1 hour after eating?
What type of ulcer is associated with pain occurring 2 to 3 hours after eating?
Right upper quadrant pain made worse by fatty food intake leads to a suspicion of _____.
Flexion of the left hip (relaxation of the left psoas may help the pain in _____.
Epigastric pain radiating to the back may indicate an origin from the _____.
Pain of _____ disease may be referred to the right shoulder, back or scapula?