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PSYCH 101 MIDTERM PART 1
Terms in this set (95)
Aspects of a study that communicate to the participants how the experimenter wants them to behave
Jake, a researcher, measures the levels of testosterone in adult males who tend to be highly aggressive. He is of the opinion that hormone levels are the single-most prominent cause of male aggression. In this scenario, Jake is most likely using the _____ approach in his study.
Psychologists who adopt a _____ approach examine behavior and mental processes through focusing on the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
Aaron wants to study the association between sleep deprivation and the number of hours spent on a computer every day. He is not keen to establish causation, but would like to determine whether and how the increase or decrease in one variable is related to the increase or decrease in the other variable. Which of the following research methods is likely to be most effective for Aaron's study?
After careful observation, Dylan has stated a hypothesis that spending money on other people leads to greater happiness than spending money on oneself. In accordance with the scientific method, which of the following steps is Dylan most likely to take next?
He will examine the prediction through empirical research.
When conducting an experiment on time management, Jamie assigns everyone who arrives before noon to the experimental group and everyone who arrives after noon to the control group. In the context of experimental research methods, what is wrong with Jamie's experiment?
Jamie has not used true random assignment
J. B. Watson and B. F. Skinner believed that
psychology should focus on an organism's visible interactions with the environment-that is, behaviors
_______refers to the soundness of the conclusions that a researcher draws from an experiment.
According to _____ psychologists, your brain houses a "mind" whose mental processes allow you to remember, make decisions, plan, set goals, and be creative.
In his practice, Dr. Wagner stresses the role of unconscious processes and unresolved childhood conflicts that influences individuals' behavior. Dr. Wagner's belief aligns with the _____ approach to psychology.
In an experiment, the _____ is conceptualized as the "potential cause" and the _____ is conceptualized as the "effect."
independent variable/dependent variable
The placebo effect can weaken the _____ of an experiment.
Which of the following theorists primarily used the structuralism approach to studying human behavior?
A _____ is the subset of a population selected to participate in the study.
Dr. Simpson finds a positive .50 correlation between ice-cream-cone sales and violent crimes in a community. Which of the following represents the best interpretation of this result?
A third variable, such as heat, may account for the association between ice-cream sales and violent crime.
According to the science of psychology, a behavior is a(n)
action that can be directly observed.
Psychology began as a science in the discipline of
Which of the following is an example of behavior?
two people holding hands in a park
are chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the neuron's terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron.
In multiple sclerosis, identify the part of a neuron that typically hardens and disrupts the flow of information through neurons.
Which part of the nervous system regulates breathing and heart rate?
If a person needs to run away from a dangerous situation, the _____ nervous system sends blood to the person's extremities to prepare him or her for taking off.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that
allows scientists to see what is happening in the brain while it is working.
Michael has schizophrenia. His doctor prescribed a new drug that blocks or interferes with the activity of dopamine. Michael's doctor is using _____ to treat his disorder.
Nathan is suffering from amnesia, an illness that prevents the retrieval of new memories. In the context of the organization of the brain, which area of Nathan's brain is most likely responsible for the amnesia?
A powerful surge of oxytocin is released in a
mother who has just given birth
Who among the following is most likely to have elevated levels of endorphins?
Amy, a 30-year-old teacher, who is in shock after a car wreck.
The endocrine system
consists of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing hormones into the bloodstream.
Which of the following methods of studying the brain records the brain's electrical activity by placing electrodes on the scalp to detect brain-wave activity?
Depression is associated with low levels of which neurotransmitter?
The axon is
the part of the neuron that carryies information away from the cell body toward other cells.
When a neuron sends an action potential, it is commonly said to be
The _____ is sometimes referred to as the "master gland" because almost all of its hormones direct the activity of target glands elsewhere.
anterior pituitary gland
The lecture you were listening to is over. The bell that rang in the hall signaled the end of class. You get up, pick up your things, and walk out the classroom door. Which kind of nerves sent the signals from your brain to your muscles to initiate your physical movements?
Joe has suffered a massive stroke. Since then, he finds it difficult to remember names of new people whom he meets or even to recognize them. This is because he is unable to retain any new memories after the stroke. In the context of the organization of the brain, these symptoms are most likely due to a damaged
When a neuron is at its resting state, what is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane?
There is a negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside.
is an individual's level of mental development relative to that of others.
Organisms learn about the consequences of behavior through _____.
produces the single best solution to a problem.
Basketball, football, baseball, and soccer all fit into the _____ of sports.
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following three systems?
Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
Having a better memory for items at the beginning of a list demonstrates the _____, whereas having a better memory for items at the end of a list demonstrates the _____.
primacy effect/recency effect
refers to rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.
Your knowledge of the alphabet and multiplication tables is stored in your _____ memory.
A person's knowledge about the world is known as _____ memory.
Proactive and retroactive interference are examples of _____.
Spanking is a form of _____; time out is a form of _____.
positive punishment/negative punishment
Why are computers considered to be an oversimplified model of the mind's processing of information?
Computer information input is pre-coded and ambiguities are removed before processing.
Multitasking is an example of _____.
Miranda is learning how to play tennis. For her first lesson, her instructor models serving and backhand returns while Miranda patiently watches. Miranda then tries to imitate the sequence of swings and motions made by her instructor. Which of the following concepts best describes how Miranda is learning to play tennis?
The cerebellum and _____ play an important role in implicit memory.
Multiple choice exams involve testing a student's _____ abilities, whereas essay exams involve testing _____ abilities.
The removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior is called _____.
is the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome. It is sometimes referred to as the "I knew it all along effect."
Which of the following involves being able to consciously recall information from the past and recite it?
In operant conditioning, _____ refers to rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior.
Jennifer accidentally plays a radio channel that she has never heard before. She loves the music it plays and as a result, she plays only that channel whenever she wants to listen to music. In the context of operant conditioning, Jennifer's behavior has most likely been learned through
When asked to memorize the 15 letters, C I A C B S A B C F B I I R S, Mary reorganizes them into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI, and IRS. Mary used the tactic of _____.
Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads the newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to the confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them?
She will read the editorials that she agrees with, but not the ones that she disagrees with.
Samantha prides herself on "never forgetting a face," although she frequently cannot put the correct name with a specific "face." Samantha is really saying that she _____.
is better at recognition than at recall
The hippocampus, the temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex, and other areas of the limbic system play a very important role in _____ memory.
Motivated forgetting and repressed memories are usually associated with what type of memories?
_____ uses established rules to draw conclusions, whereas in _____, such rules are not established, and we may not know the consequences of the decisions.
Jillian was in a car accident and sustained a serious head trauma. Since the surgery, she has forgotten her name, career, and other vital information about herself. Yet, she is still able to talk, know what words mean, and have general knowledge about the world, such as what day it is or who currently is the president of the U.S. This behavior suggests that Jillian's _____ is impaired, but her _____ is still functioning.
episodic memory/semantic memory
Information can last up to a lifetime in _____.
You go to a hypnotist to help you quit smoking. The hypnotist asks you to remember and describe things that you did differently before you started smoking. Which memory system will you use most to comply with this request?
Your episodic memory system
Developing a criterion for determining the effectiveness of the solution occurs during which step of the problem-solving process?
evaluation of solutions
Recollections of John's first family vacation to Disneyland are part of John's _____.
Attention, deep processing, elaboration, and the use of mental imagery are _____ processes.
George has just graduated from college and is going on his first big job interview. He has learned that there are 10 other applicants for the job. On account of information on the serial position effect that he learned in his psychology class, George asks to be either the first or the last candidate interviewed. Why?
The serial position effect predicts that either the first or the last job applicant interviewed will be remembered better than the applicant interviewed second.
The presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior is called
After taking her English final, Natalie attempts to relax in her chair by meditating. She is attempting to reduce her heart and respiration rates, as well as her muscular tension. In this scenario, her physiological relaxation can be best attributed to the functioning of her _____ nervous system.
The _____ connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.
peripheral nervous system
The brain and spinal cord make up the
central nervous system
Just before you went on a job interview your heart was pounding like crazy. You experienced a shortness of breath and felt sick to your stomach. These symptoms were most likely produced by your _____ nervous system.
In the context of the neural impulse, the membrane that encases the axon is called semipermeable because
fluids can sometimes flow into and out of it.
Resting potential is the
stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron.
treelike fibers which receive information and orient it toward the neuron's cell body.
The brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon is
Which of the following is a true statement about dendrites?
They are treelike fibers projecting from a neuron.
Which of the following refer to tiny spaces between neurons?
are secreted by the adrenal glands.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
The chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands are known as
Kenny has been diagnosed with Parkinson disease and has been prescribed medication to manage some of his symptoms. The medication elevates the levels of dopamine in his system. If the levels of dopamine in his system become excessive, Kenny is most likely to exhibit symptoms associated with
Electrical activity in the brain can be captured by placing multiple electrodes on the scalp and then measuring the underlying electrical activity. This method of studying the brain's activity is called a(n) _____.
Large neuron clusters located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex, that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements are called _____.
Marshall damaged his cerebellum in a car accident. Marshal is likely to have problems with _____.
balance and muscle coordination
Which of the following is the brain's largest division?
Which of the following is true with regard to the association cortex?
It is the region of the cerebral cortex that is the site of the highest intellectual functions, such as thinking and problem solving.
is a term used to describe the influences of multiple genes on behavior.
manufacture the proteins that are necessary for maintaining life.
is a complex molecule in the cell's chromosomes that carries genetic information.
is a genetic method in which organisms are chosen for reproduction based on how much of a particular trait they display.
Molly's natural hair color is brown but she has had it dyed blonde. Molly changed her
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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