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Chp 14 - Host- Microbe Relationships/Disease Processes
Terms in this set (45)
Define the term symbiosis, and host.
Symbiosis: two organisms of different species are living together
Host: bigger organism that harbors another organism
What are three example of symbiotic relationships?
1. Mutualism: ++; both organisms benefit
Ex: Termites: protozoa and termite; human and E.coli - bacteria is happy and E. coli produces vitamin k for us and microbial antagonism
2. Parasite: +-; one benefits and the other does not; host is harmed by parasite.
Ex: every virus is a parasite, bacteria, and helminths (parasitic worms)
- pin worm infection: located in anus; 30% of children get this infection
3. Commensualism: +=; one benefits and the other is neutral
Ex: spider makes a web on a plant, spider is happy as a clam but the plant doesn't care; bacteria on our skin can feed on our secretions
Define the term disease.
Health disturbance wherein the body cannot carry out its normal functions
"dis - ease"
Microorganisms are present.
What is the difference between infection and infestation?
Infection: multiplication of parasitic organisms
Infestation: presence of large parasites, like worms or lice
True or false: infectious disease is the leading cause of death in the world
FALSE. It's the third runner up.
Define pathogen, and pathogenicity.
pathogen: organism that can cause disease inside another organism
pathogenicity: capacity to reproduce disease
Intensity of disease produced by pathogen
What is animal passage? How is attenuation and transposal of virulence related to it?
1. Animal passage: refers to the fact that if you infect an animal (like a rabbit) and it gets sick, and then you take the same disease into a second rabbit the second rabbit will get even sicker. If you are passing from animal to animal the infectious disease will become more virulent. It has adapted to the environment of the animal
2. Attenuation: "weakening"; if you take the virus from rabbit 20 (Above) and give it to human, the human won't get very sick. The pathogen has adapted to the rabbit body.
Vaccine is another example
3. Transposal of Virulence: laboratory technique of attenuation, the process in which many vaccines are made.
What is an emerging virus? What are some examples? Why are they so virulent?
Humans coming into contact with wild animals and becoming infected with pathogens that did not co-evolve with humans.
Ex: SARS, Ebola, H5N1, Zika
Time is directly related to the virulence of a pathogen.
Are there more or less bacterial cells on an individual than cells that actually make up the body?
More! There are 100 trillion bacterial cells harbored in the human body, which is composed of 10 trillion cells.
Why is microflora important? What is Resident Microflora? What is transient microflora? What are some prominent areas that contain microbiota and some areas that are microbe free?
They are organisms that live on or within our body that do not cause disease. They consume nutrients in our secretions, and in places like our gut they prevent "bad bacteria" from getting in on the fun.
Resident: microbes that are always present on skin or in human body.
Ex: E. coli in gut
Transient: With you for a short time and then leave, they may or may not be pathogenic.
- cerebrospinal fluid
- urine in kidneys/bladder
- bone marrow
- internal eye
- middle/inner ear
- semen prior to entry into the urethra
What is the purpose of Koch's postulates? What is the order of the steps? What might be some problems that come up with this process?
Purpose: find out which organisms causes which disease
1. Specific causative agent must be observed in all sick organisms.
2. The agent must be isolated and grown in pure culture outside of the organism.
3. A healthy, susceptible hosts must get the same disease when inoculated.
4. The agent must be re-isolated and show to be the same causative agent.
Problems: could be more than one agent, it might not be able to grow in the lab, or there is no non-human susceptible growth
* Koch did this with TB and cholera
What are the two types of noninfectious disease?
1. Genetic: born with or later acquire a genetic mutation in your DNA that causes disease.
ex: cancer, cystic fibrosis
2. Environmental: high exposure to sun (cancer); radiation poisoning.
- mutations are caused by what you are exposed to in the environment
How can infectious disease be non-communicable?
From environment: tetanus (coming into tetanus endospores digging in dirt, you cannot give it to someone else)
Rupture appendix: lots of microbes in body cavity that should not be there, but you cannot transmit it
Take in preformed toxins (food poisoning)
What is an inherited disease? What is an example?
genetic disorder (hemophelia, cystic fibrosis, huntingtons)
What is a congenital disease? What is an example?
Present at birth either due to mother being infected or things the mother did during pregnancy (alcohol, drugs); (Syphilis, HIV, Rubella)
What is a degenerative disease? What is an example?
diseases associated with old age (kidney failure, Alzheimer's) disease typically gets worse as time passes
What is a nutritional deficiency disease? What is an example?
not taking in one or more nutrients (scurvy)
What is an endocrine disease? what is an example?
diseases that are related to hormones (diabetes, hyper/hypothyroidism)
What is a mental disease? what is an example?
anything having to do with nervous system (Alzheimer's, huntingtins, autism)
What is an immunological disease? There are three subtypes, what are they and some examples?
Immunological: associated with immune system
1. Immunodeficiency: immune system is not working as well as it should (HIV, toxicity in environment)
2. Autoimmune disease: own body attacks your own tissues (RA)
3. Allergies: too strong of a response to a nontoxic (pollen)
What is a neoplastic disease?
What is an Iatrogenic disease? How can these be caused?
disease resulting from a mistake from medical professional (pharmacist giving you the wrong prescription, surgeon cutting off wrong disease, all nosocomial infections)
What is an idiopathic disease?
diseases of unknown etiology (autism, alzheimer's)
What is a virulence factor?
structural or physiological characteristics that help and organisms cause infection and disease
In regards to virulence factor, what is direct action? what are the three ways the direct action causes disease?
Bacteria can enter the body by penetrating skin or mucous membranes, sexual transmission, being ingested by food, etc.
1. Adherence: Attachment to host cells surface. Bacteria had adhesions to allow attachment. (attachment pilli)
2. Colonization: bacteria replication on surface
a) Hyaluronidase: enzyme that disturbs the junction between epithelial cells
b) coagulase: allows pathogen to form barrier (blood clot) around itself to protect from bodies immune response
c) streptokinase: disrupts blood clot so the bacteria can roam
Define poison, toxin, and venom. Which of these is most inclusive?
Poison: substance that causes disturbance in organism
Toxin: poison produced by organism
Venom: Poison/toxin delivered by bite or sting
*Venom is a toxin, and a poison.
What is the difference between toxemia and intoxications?
Toxemia: toxin made at site of infection
Intoxication: perform toxins
What are characteristics of an exotoxin?
- Secreted by bacterium
- Usually gram +
a) hemolysins: destroy RBC's
b) leukocidins: destroy WBC's
c) neurotoxins: effect nervous system
d) enterotoxins: GI Tract
What are characteristics of an endotoxin?
- Caused by gram - bacteria
- only released when bacterium dies and lipopolysaccharide breaks apart
- weaker than exotoxins
what is a toxoid?
Inactivated toxin, such as a vaccine.
In relation to viruses, what is meant by "cytopathic effect"?
Their ability to take over and kill cells is how they cause disease.
What is the difference between a productive and abortive viral infection?
Productive: replication occurs
Abortive: attaching and entering cell, but cannot replicate
What is the difference between a latent and persistent viral infection?
Latent: period of dormancy (HSV I & II)
Persistent: infections that do not kill the host rapidly, but keep on replicating for years (HBV)
How do eukaryotic pathogens (fungi, protozoa, and helminths) cause disease?
Fungi: damage host tissue by releasing enzymes that attack cells
Protozoa: like those that cause malaria, invade and reproduce in RBC's
- destroy tissue
- release toxic waste
- cause allergic reactions in host
What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?
Sign: can be observed by examining a patient
- Rash, vomiting, diarrhea
Symptom: can only be felt by patient
- Sore throat, headache, malaise
What is a syndrome?
Combination of signs and symptoms
What is a sequeale? What is an example?
After effects of disease.
Ex: polio causing paralysis, shingles causing blindness, chicken pox leaving scars
What are the five types of diseases that describe their duration? What is an example of each?
1. Acute: come on fast and resolve themselves fast (cold and flu)
2. Chronic: takes long time to develop and hang around forever (leprosy)
3. Subacute: in between acute and chronic (gingivitis - infection of gums)
4. Latent: go dormant and pop up (genital herpes)
5. Inapparent (subclinical): you never knew you had the infection (Zika, whooping cough)
What is the difference between a local, focal, and systemic infectious disease? What is an example of each?
1. Local: in one spot (bladder infection)
2. Focal: in one spot, but either toxins can spread or infectious organisms can spread (sinus infection)
3. Systemic: all over body (malaria)
What are the four types of infectious disease that effect our blood?
Remember, blood SHOULD be free of any microbes!
1. Septicemia: "blood poisoning"; viruses or bacteria present in your blood, and multiplying in blood stream
2. Bacteremia: bacteria in your blood, but they can be transported by blood cells, not necessarily multiplying
3. Viremia: viruses in blood, can just be virions, not necessarily multiplying
4. Sapremia: caused by fungi, specifically the waste of fungal organisms in your blood
What are the four types of infectious diseases in relation to multiple infections? Name an example of each.
1. Primary: happen initially (Getting cold or flu)
2. Secondary: develops after and because of primary infection ( have a cold and then develop an ear infection or pneumonia)
3. Superinfection: type of secondary infection that occurs as a result of the disturbance in the microbiota (fungal infections); usually occurs taking antibiotics
4. Mixed: more than one infectious agent that is causing it; (dental decay)
What are the five stages of infectious disease? Be sure to include Acme, fulmination, and pyrogens.
1. Incubation periods: you have no idea that you have been infected, no signs or symptoms
2. Prodromal phase: vague symptoms (malaise)
3. Invasive: number of bacteria/viruses increasing dramatically, severe signs and symptoms until you reach Acme: the peak of the illness.
- fulminating: build up to acme - pyrogens: molecules reset the thermostat in your body to a higher temperature, during that time you will feel very cold, and once you reach the temp set the pyrogens disintegrate and body thermostat resets to normal, and you will feel hot
4. Decline phase: declining signs and symptoms and numbers of bacteria/virus
5. Convalescence: numbers of pathogen return to zero
What are some challenges associated with controlling infectious disease?
1. Available medical expertise is not always applied
2. Pathogens are adaptable (arms race)
3. Changing human activities (emergent diseases)
4. International travel/immigration
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