61 terms

Unfamiliar Text Terminology

Terms and definitions of unfamiliar text terms required for NCEA
STUDY
PLAY
Rhetorical Question
a question asked for an effect, not actually requiring an answer. Effect: they get the reader thinking; emphasis
Hyperbole
An over-exaggeration. Effect: emphasis
Metaphor
A direct comparison for effect. Effect: to describe vividly
Simile
A comparison using like or as. Effect: to describe vividly
Pun
A play on words based on a word that has one sound but two meanings. Effect: often used for humour and can create an informal/casual tone
Imperative
A command prompting an action. Effect: depends on context but often creates personality or tone / mood
Emotive language
Language used to manipulate the way an audience feels. Effect: to create empathy and help persuade the audience
Inclusive language
Use of personal prounouns to make the audience feel part of a group. Effect: makes the audience feel part of the group
Quotation
A sentence or phrase taken from a well-known source. Used due to familiarity purposes. Effect: reinforce/emphasis tone
Cliche
A phrase that has been over-used, it has now lost its original meaning, effectiveness. Effect: often used for humour
Proverb
Short - traditional saying with an underlying moral or message. Effect: to emphasise a point, to develop rhetoric or sometimes for humour
Alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of a group of words. Effect: emphasis; creates rhythm and sound effects
Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds at the end of consecutive words. Effect: to create sound effects, rhythm, emphasis
Allusion
An indirect reference to a well-known person, story, idea, event. Effect: adds new and often deeper meaning to the piece of writing
Repetition
Repeating a key word or idea for emphasis. Effect: emphasis; create rhythm
Adjective
A describing word. Effect: to modify and make more precise the description of something
Onomatopoeia
A word that is written the way it sounds. Effect: create real sound
Colloquial Language
Informal language gives a sense of familiarity or informality. Effect: casual atmosphere, realistic dialogue and personality created
Jargon
Words that are specific to a certain topic or field. Effect: sounds expert, creates accuracy; can exclude those who don't understand it
Euphemism
Telling a harsh truth in a gentle way. Effect: can be used for superstitious/religious/political reasons or to reveal character/personality
Listing
A sequence of names, objects, descriptions, phrases etc. Effect: emphasis, image creation
Statistics
Specific factual figures regarding a relevant topic. Effect: can help convince the audience
Personification
When inanimate objects are given human qualities. Effect: to give an object personality
Stanza
Another name for a verse. Effect: to help give structure to a poem
Rhythm
The beat of a line caused by stressed and unstressed syllables. Effect: rhythm to create mood
Noun
A naming word. Effect: creates images
Verb
An action or doing word. Effect: create movement / action
Adverb
A word that describes a verb. Effect: to modify and make more precise the description of action.
Tone
The mood or feeling of a piece of writing. Effect: reveals the narrator's/writer's attitude toward the material
Formal language
Using more formal words to help create a formal tone in a piece of writing or in a speech. Effect: formal atmosphere, dialogue and personality created
Slang
Very informal language used to identify with a particular sub-culture. Effect: casual atmosphere, realistic dialogue and personality created
Sensory language
Using words that have a strong appeal to one or more of the sense. Effect: conveys sensory impressions for a more vivid story
Superlative
Adjectives that indicate the highest degree of something. Effect: emphasis
Narrative voice
The way in which something is written. Eg) First person, second person, third person narration. Effect: the narrator's personality, ideas and beliefs can influence how the story is told
Stereotype
A fixed mental impression that everyone can relate to. Effect: helps the reader quickly identify who the writer's talking about
Minor sentences
Sentences that are short and incomplete. Effect: often gives a text an informal tone.
Audience appeal
When a writer knows their audience and will appeal to them so that they come across very popular.
Contractions
Shortening of words in informal speech and writing. Cannot is shortened to can't. Effect: often gives a text an informal tone.
Connotation
is the emotional association which many words have and they mean different things to different people. Effect: to create mood, to influence tone, to persuade
Extended metaphor
variations of the same comparison used in one piece of writing. Effect: to create a linked and complex description.
Symbolism
something that stands for something else. Effect: a universal shortcut to meaning
Dialogue
conversation between two or more people reported as it is said. Effect: creates character through voice; reveals relationships
Juxtaposition
two things placed very closely together. Effect: to link two things together
Rhyme
Repetition of identical or closely similar sounds. Effect: to link, to create rhythm
Audience & purpose
The demographic, gender, interests etc. of an audience and why a text is written, to persuade, express, entertain or inform
Content
What the text is actually about e.g. opinions, themes, action, examples.
Language
The different types of language features used in a text for effect.
Structure & organisation
The development, contrast, repetition or point-of-view in a text
Ancedote
A short and amusing or interesting account, which may depict a real incident or person
Factual Details
True information contained in a text
Opinion
A personal view, attitude, or appraisal.
Rhetorical Questions
A figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked in order to make a point
Past Tense
A grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time
Personal Pronouns
Pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person - first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it).
Personal Details
Personally identifiable information
Anaphora
A rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them emphasis
Antistrophe
The portion of an ode sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response to the strophe, which was sung from east to west
Parallel Structure
Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more words or ideas are of equal importance and to help the reader comprehend what is being written.
Claim
State or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof.
Climax
The turning point of a narrative work is its point of highest tension or drama or when the action starts in which the solution is given.
Direct Address
The use of a term or name for the person spoken to, as in securing the attention of that person; use of a vocative form.