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History Chapter 23
Terms in this set (73)
It had a large population
It had a prosperous foreign trade
It was the center of the Enlightenment
It's culture was widely praised and imitated by the rest of the world
For what four reasons was France considered the most advanced country in Europe during the 18th century?
disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment ideas of Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire
For what four reasons was there great unrest in France during the 18th century?
Approximately what fraction/percentage of a French peasant's income was used to pay tithes, dues, and taxes in the 18th century?
new ideas about government
serious economic problems
weak and indecisive leadership
What three factors helped to generate a desire for change in France after 1750?
According to Comte D'Antraigues, who/what group in French society possesses ultimate "sovereignty"?
heavy burden of taxes
What situation in 18th century France alarmed merchants, bankers, and factory owners and made it almost impossible to conduct business profitably?
Of what royal family was Marie Antoinette originally a member?
establishment of the National Assembly
What action in the summer of 1789 signaled the change of power in France and that radical reforms were about to overtake France?
freedom of speech
freedom of religion
What three rights were guaranteed in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"?
The assembly took over Church lands and declared that Church officials and priests were to be elected and paid as state officials. Thus, the Catholic Church lost both its lands and its political independence. The reasons for the assembly's actions were largely economic. Proceeds from the sale of Church lands helped pay off France's huge debt.
the effort to make the Church a part of the state—they believed that the pope should rule over a church independent of the state
What actions by the National Assembly against the Catholic Church aroused the opposition of French peasantry and made them opponents of the assembly's reforms?
created limited constitutional monarchy through new constitution
What two major actions did the National Assembly take in September 1791 shortly after convening?
peasants (who were horrified by the king's execution)
priests (who would not accept government control)
rival leaders (who were stirring up rebellion in the provinces)
Identify three groups that were internal enemies of the Jacobins.
fellow radicals who challenged his leadership
Which "enemies of the people" troubled Robespierre the most?
set up efficient method of tax collection
established a national banking system
In his capacity as "First Consul," what two steps did Napoleon Bonaparte take to place French economy on solid footing?
gained Napoleon the support of the organized Church as well as the majority of the French people
What was the value of the "concordat" that Napoleon signed with the Catholic Church in 1801?
freedom of speech and of the press, established during the Revolution, were restricted; the code also restored slavery in the French colonies of the Caribbean
In what ways was the Napoleonic Code a step backward from the rights granted in the early days of the French Revolution?
He would gain money to finance operations in Europe.
He would punish the British.
What two benefits did Napoleon derive from the sale of the Louisiana Territory to the United States in 1803?
It ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years.
It forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain.
What were the two major results of Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar?
the Continental System
the Peninsular War
the invasion of Russia
most disastrous--invasion of Russia
What were three disastrous mistakes that led ultimately to Napoleon's demise? Which was the most disastrous?
He wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries.
He wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others.
He wanted to restore Europe's royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon's conquests.
What three goals did Metternich have at the Congress of Vienna?
enabled the countries of Europe to contain France
enabled the countries of Europe to prevent France from overpowering weaker nations
What was the twofold overall result of the four territorial provisions that were made at the Congress of Vienna?
the return of the former monarchs to their rightful thrones before Napoleon had driven them away
What action by the Congress of Vienna was seen as a means to stabilize political relations among nations?
The Congress of Vienna was victory for what political faction?
the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789 to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
"great fear"; a general panic that took place between July 17 and August 3, 1789, at the start of the French Revolution
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"
a document set by France's National Assembly in 1789 during the French Revolution that regarded human civil rights
a person who leaves their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
"those without knee breeches"; in the French Revolution, a radical group made of Parisian wageearners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages
a wave of killings in Paris and other cities from September 2-7, 1792, during the French Revolution, fear that foreign and royalist armies would attack Paris and that the inmates of the city's prisons would be freed and join them
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
levee en masse
the policy of forced mass military conscription
Reign of Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
"blow to the state"; a sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government
a direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
a government-run public school in France
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of France
Balance of Power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain
(r. 1774-1793) wanted to govern well but lacked forceful personality and willpower, little interest in governing, ignored advice of government advisers and had no patience for details of governing
wife of Louis XVI who meddled in government affairs and gave bad advice, very unpopular because member of Austrian royal family (bitter French enemy), spent lavish amounts of money on frivolous items, "Madame Deficit"
(1748-1836) clergyman who spoke for Third Estate and suggested they named themselves "National Assembly" to pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Olympe de Gorges
(1748-1793) published declaration of the rights of women but ideas rejected, 1793 declared "Enemy of the Revolution" and executed
in the French Revolution, a member of a radical society or club of revolutionaries that promoted the Reign of Terror and other extreme measures, active chiefly from 1789 to 1794: so called from the Dominican convent in Paris, where they originally met
(1743-1793) prominent Jacobin who edited newspaper "L'Ami du Peuple" "Friend of the People," called for death of king's supporters
woman who tricked Marat and stabbed him while he was taking a bath at his personal residence
(1759-1794) talented/passionate speaker noted for devotion to rights of Parisian poor
(1758-1794) man who slowly gained power in early 1793, set out to build "Republic of Virtue" by erasing every trace of France's past, changed France's calendar to 12 (renamed) months of 30 days without Sundays because old-fashioned and dangerous (churches also closed), became leader of Committee of Public Safety in July 1793 and ruled France as dictator for a year (Reign of Terror), guillotined when members of National Convention turned on him
(1769-1821) born on island of Corsica, hero of the hour when told to defend delegates at National Convention--"Savior of the French Republic", leader of French army, wrote comprehensive system of laws, crowned as emperor of France
leader of group of enslaved Africans when they seized control of the colony of Saint Dominigue
British commander (admiral) during Battle of Trafalgar
Duke of Wellington
led British during Battle of Waterloo
Jacques Louis David
French painter in the neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era
Klemens von Metternich
(1773-1859) Foreign Minister of Austria who distrusted democratic ideals of French Revolution, conservative, goals at Congress of Vienna to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries, restore "balance of power" and restore Europe's royal families to thrones pre-Napoleon
Ignace Joseph Guillotin
doctor who proposed the idea of the guillotine, people "wouldn't even feel the slightest pain"
Parisian fortress prison with walls ten feet thick that fell on July 14, 1789; mob searched for weapons, troops fired on crowd, holiday celebrated to commemorate this day
place at which royal family of Louis XVI apprehended in June 1791 when they attempted to escape to the Austrian Netherlands
first major victory by French army during wars that followed French Revolution; battle that took place in September 1792, French army defeated Austrian/Prussian forces
battle on March 8, 1801 in Egypt on the Mediterranean coast near the Nile; France vs. Britain
final defeat of Napoleon; battle that took place in 1805; Napoleon very pleased with defeat of Russia and Austria by French army
battle that took place on October 21, 1805 on the southwest coast of Spain, naval defeat for Napoleon (France), British commander Horatio Nelson; ensured British naval supremacy for next century, forced Napoleon to give up plans to invade Britain
(Battle of Nations) battle that took place in October 1813 in Germany, Europeans crushed French forces
tiny island off coast of Italy where Napoleon was banished to the first time (prior to the Hundred Days)
"Battle of the Three Emperors"; battle on June 18, 1815, in which the British were led by the Duke of Wellington; fighting lasted three days, French forces were chased from the battlefield
remote island in the South Atlantic where Napoleon was shipped after Elba and the Hundred Days and died in 1821 of cancer
place in Austria where Congress held
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