Chapter 21 vocabs
Terms in this set (56)
The third stage of food processing in animals: the uptake of small nutrient molecules by an organism's body.
mixture of recently swallowed food and gastric juice
a digestive tract consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus; also called a complete digestive tract.
A small, fingerlike extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
a mixture of substances that is produced in the liver but stored in the gallbladder and that enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats
A lubricated ball of chewed food
animals that eat relatively large pieces of food
organism that obtains energy by eating animals
blind pouch that is the first part of the large intestine
a small globule that transports lipids. Chylomicrons are composed of fats mixed with cholesterol and coated with proteins.
the largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and fromation of feces
complete digestive tract
a digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called an alimentary canal
the second stage of food processing in animals: the breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
The first section of the small intestine, where chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder as well as from gland cells of the intestinal wall.
the fourth and final stage of food processing in animals: the passing of undigested material out of the digestive system.
the process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water
flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing
a channel that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach
essential amino acid
an amino acid that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food in prefabricated form. Eight amino acids are essential in the human adult.
essential fatty acid
an unsaturated fatty acid that an animal needs but cannot make
breakdown of food in compartments that are continous with the outside of an animal's body
the wastes of the digestive tract
an animal that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organism
organ that stores bile from the liver and releases it into the small intestine as needed
a digestive fluid secreted by the stomach.
a central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals that functions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
hepatic portal vein
a large circulatory channel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
the first stage of food processing in animals: the act of eating.
hydrolisis of food inside vacuoles
tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons
tubular portion of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the small intestine and anus; functions manily in water absorption and formation of feces
largest internal organ in vertebrate body; performs diverse functions: produces bile, prepares nitrogenous wastes for disposal, and detoxifies poisonous chemicals in blood
the long-term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients
one of many fine, fingerlike projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increase its surface area
nutrients that are needed by the body in small amounts and are not made by living things
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
the consumption of more calories than the body needs for normal metabolism
a gland with the following dual functions: The nonendocrine portion functions in digestion, secreting enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the ductless endocrine portion functions in homeostasis, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
an enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins
inactive form of pepsin that is first sectered by chief cells located in gastic pits of the stomach
alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal that push food along the canal.
throat; passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and air traveling to the larynx
the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum
the terminal portion of the large intestine where the feces are stored until they are eliminated
an animal, such as a cow or a sheep, with an elaborate, multicompartmentalized stomach specialized for an herbivorous diet.
three pairs of exocrine glands (the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands) in the mouth that secrete saliva; The secretions of salivary glands contain substances to lubricate food, adhere together chewed pieces into a bolus, and begin the process of chemical digestion
the longest section of the alimentary canal; the principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients
a ringlike valve, consisting of modified muscles in a muscular tube, that regulates passage between some compartments of the alimentary canal
an organ of the digestive system that stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion
an animal that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food.
an aquatic animal, such as a sponge, clam, or baleen whale, that feeds by sifting small food particles from the water.
a condition that results from a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires
fingerlike projection of the inner surface of the small intestine that functions in absorbing nutrients
organic molecules required in the diet in very small amounts. These serve primarily as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes.