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Geosc 040 Exam #2 Clickers/OLA's

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Fishes:

A. are typically cold-blooded vertebrates with scales,
gills and fins
B. in some cases do not have scales or fins
C. are vertebrates and typically have a streamlined
body shape for easy/fast swimming.
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
Which of the following is/are true

a) Catadromous fishes use gills for gas exchange,
whereas anadromous fishes do not.
b) Anadromous fishes spawn where they normally live.
c) Anadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to
freshwater to spawn.
d) Catadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to
freshwater to spawn.
e) (d) and (a)
c) Anadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to
freshwater to spawn.
Lateral line organs are used by fish to.

a) extract dissolved oxygen from water
b) remove carbon dioxide from the bloodstream.
c) detect predators and other fish.
d) all of the above
e) none of the above
c) detect predators and other fish.
Which of the following is true

A. Ocean acidification means the ocean is become more acid;
the pH is getting lower
B. As the oceans absorb ever more CO2 from cars and power
plants, the chemistry of the seas is transforming faster
than at any time in tens of millions of years.
C. The extra CO2 makes life hard
for creatures with shells and
skeletons and threatens to
fundamentally transform the
entire marine world.
D. All of the above
E. (A) and (C)
D. All of the above
Which of the following is/are True:

A. The hydrologic cycle involves Evaporation
B. We all affect the ocean. So, turning off the water
when you brush your teeth and turning the lights
out when you are not using them is a good idea...
C. Coral turn white when they are dying.
D. Some coral spawn by releasing all of their eggs on
a single night of the year
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Corals :

a) Don't need nutrients and sunlight because they
are really just rocks and are not alive.
b) Eat mainly Small fish and shrimp
c) Obtain 98% of their food from symbiotic,
photosynthetic algae
d) Thrive in environments where suspended sediment
is high, such as near river mouths
e) None of the above
c) Obtain 98% of their food from symbiotic, photosynthetic algae
Corals forming reefs require:

a) Clear, warm, shallow waters and sunlight
b) High nutrients supplied in upwelling zones
c) Abundant dissolved silicon for their skeletons
d) Cold water and dark conditions
e) a and b
a) Clear, warm, shallow waters and sunlight
Coral:

a) Can live in almost any conditions, which is why
global warming and ocean acidification is not
having an adverse affect on coral.
b) Eat mainly grass and seaweed.
c) Live in concert with symbiotic, photosynthetic
algae
d) Often grow several meters per year and can be
replaced in just a few 10's of years.
e) All of the above
c) Live in concert with symbiotic, photosynthetic
algae
Coral polyps:

a) Mainly emerge at night to feed.
b) Precipitate CaCO3 at night while they emerge
c) Can extrude their guts to attack nearest
neighbors competing for space
d) Are animals with plant symbionts that live
within them
e) All of the above
e) All of the above
Corals spawn at night by releasing eggs and sperm into
the water column to what advantage?

a) To synchronize spawning over a reef to guarantee
survival of many eggs/larvae.
b) To provide a larger gene pool for fertilization to
guarantee health of the population.
c) To avoid predation of eggs & larvae by fish feeding
mainly in daylight
d) All of the above
e) none of the above
d) All of the above
Coral reef health is increasingly threatened by

A. viral and bacterial infections
B. nutrient surplus leading to excess algal
growth
C. effects of overfishing in reef settings
D. increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
E. all of the above
E. all of the above
Modern coral reefs appear to be limited to
regions where the

A. salinity is between 10 and 25 o/oo
B. concentration of particulates is high
C. mean annual temperature is >20°C
D. water depth is greater than 100 meters
E. none of the above
C. mean annual temperature is >20°C
Which of the following are True:

A. A study in 2009 revealed that waste excreted by
clownfish provides vital nutrients to anemones.
B. Clownfish and anemones live on coral reefs where
oxygen levels in the water often plunge at night as
photosynthesis shuts down
C. Anemone provides a tentacle-guarded home for
clownfish and the clownfish drive off predators that
would chew its protector.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
D. All of the above
Which of the following are True:

A. In the Spring of 2013, an algae bloom off southwest
Florida, called Florida red tide, killed over 174
manatees
B. A red tide is a higher than normal concentration of
a microscopic algae that appears in coastal waters.
At high enough concentrations, the algae can turn
the water red or brown, hence the name.
C. Red tides are generally not caused by pollution,
they have been documented in the 1700s and along
Florida's Gulf coast in the 1840s.
D. All of the above
E. A and B
D. All of the above
Which of the following is/are true

A. Fishes and other animals
require dissolved oxygen to live
in seawater
B. Many species of fishes require
dissolved oxygen levels of 4
mg/L or higher
C. Hypoxia and low levels of
dissolved oxygen in the bottom
waters of Chesapeake Bay are
exacerbated by thermal
stratification of the Bay water.
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
D. All of the above
Which of the following is/are true about Eutrophication

A. It starts with excess nutrients, which cause blooms of algae
B. It involves bacteria that use (and eventually severely
deplete) dissolved oxygen in the process of decomposing organic matter
C. It can be caused by sewage discharge into streams and lakes
D. the nutrients released during respiration in deeper waters are cycled back to the surface and produce more blooms and further organic matter loading
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Which of the following are true?

A) Rainwater from State College ends up in The
Chesapeake Bay
B) Excess nutrients in The Bay, and other bodies of
water, can cause Eutrophication, which means that
dissolved oxygen becomes very low
C) Hypoxia is primarily caused by strong winds, which
blow away the clouds and evaporation
D) All of the above
E) (A) and (B)
E) (A) and (B)
Oxygen Concentrations in Chesapeake Bay

A. Are generally higher in surface waters, because oxygen mixes into the water from the air
B. Are generally lower in bottom waters
C. Generally increase in bottom waters during summer when thermal stratification is strongest
D. All of the above
E. (A) and (B)
E. (A) and (B)
Oxygen Concentrations in Chesapeake Bay

A. Can become dangerously low during winter when thermal stratification is strongest
B. Are especially low near the surface because of wind, waves and mixing
C. Become higher during periods of extreme eutrophication
D. Are only important for larger fishes; clams and snails can use oxygen from the H20 molecule
E. None of the above
E. None of the above
Nutrients that cause Eutrophication and, ultimately, Hypoxia include:

A. Nitrogen
B. Calcium
C. Phosphorous
D. Gatorade
E. (A) and (C)
E. (A) and (C)
Why are oxygen concentrations during times of eutrophication generally lowest in the upper Chesapeake Bay?
A. This is where the water is deepest?
B. This is where thermal stratification is weakest
C. This is where nutrients enter the bay, from the Susquehanna and other rivers
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
C. This is where nutrients enter the bay, from the Susquehanna and other rivers
Eutrophication

A. Is a sign of a healthy ecosystem
B. Results from an excess of solar energy
C. Is accompanied by low surface-water productivity
D. Results from an excess of nutrients
E. All of the above
D. Results from an excess of nutrients
Which of the following typically cause(s) excess nutrient and pollutant flows to rivers?

A. Croplands
B. Clearcut forest tracts
C. Storm water runoff
D. Automobile emissions
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Eutrophication causes dissolved oxygen levels to be __:

A. higher in the winter, in part because bacteria migrate south in winter
B. higher in the winter, in part because sunlight is stronger in winter
C. lower in the summer, in part because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
D. lower in the summer, in part because thermal stratification is weakest in summer
C. lower in the summer, in part because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
Which of the following are true?

A. Dissolved oxygen at the bottom varies over the
seasons and by region in Chesapeake Bay.
B. Summer warming and stratification can bring
stressful or lethal conditions.
C. Salinity levels below 2 ppt are found mainly during winter months.
D. Generally, oxygen deficiencies are more severe
in the upper Bay.
E. All but C.
E. All but C.
Which is/are true about the cycle of Eutrophication

A. Excess nutrients support blooms of phytoplankton and other algae and plants
B. Sinking organic matter is decomposed by bacteria, which release nutrients that are cycled back to the photic zone, thereby producing more organic matter
C. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen become very low, in part because the bacteria that thrive on organic matter use the oxygen and because of the chemical reactions that cause decay of organic matter.
D. If the water column does not mix, for example because of seasonal thermal stratification, oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters can become so low that nothing can live.
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
Oxygen Concentrations in Chesapeake Bay

A. Can become dangerously low during summer when thermal stratification is strongest
B. Are especially low near the surface because of wind, waves and mixing
C. Become low during periods of eutrophication
D. Are only important for larger fishes. Clams and snails can use oxygen from the H20 molecule
E. (A) and (C)
E. (A) and (C)
Excess nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay come from:

A. agricultural practices such as fertilization
B. industry and suburban environments within the
watershed
C. the gulf stream
D. all of the above
E. (A) and (B)
E. (A) and (B)
Deep water waves:
1) S = L / T, 2) S = 1.56 T, 3) L =1.56 T2
(S is speed in m/s, T is period in sec, and L is wavelength in m.)

Think about a deep-water wave with 1-second period?
What is the speed of the wave crest?

A. Celerity is: 0.64 m/s
B. Celerity is: 1.56 m/s
C. Celerity is: 0.156 m/s
D. Celerity is: 156 m
E. Celerity is: 15.6 m/s
B. Celerity is: 1.56 m/s
Deep water waves: 1) S = L / T, 2) S = 1.56 T, 3) L =1.56 T2 (S is speed in m/s, T is period in sec, and L is wavelength in m.)

What is the speed of a deep-water wave with 100-second period?

A. 0.64 m/s
B. 156 m/s
C. 0.156 m/s
D. 15.6 m
E. 1.56
B. 156 m/s
Deep water waves:
1) S = L / T, 2) S = 1.56 T, 3) L =1.56 T2
(S is speed in m/s, T is period in sec, and L is wavelength in m.)

Think about a deep-water wave with 1-second period?
What is the speed and wavelength?

A. Celerity is: 0.64 m/s and Wavelength is 1.42 m
B. Celerity is: 1.56 m/s and Wavelength is 1.56 m
C. Celerity is: 0.156 m/s and Wavelength is 0.156 m
D. Celerity is: 156 m and Wavelength is 156 m/s
E. Celerity is: 1.56 m/s and Wavelength is 156 m
B. Celerity is: 1.56 m/s and Wavelength is 1.56 m
Deep-water wave when d>L/2; Shallow-water wave" when d<L/20
Deep water waves:
1) S = L / T, 2) S = 1.56 T , 3) L =1.56 T2
(S is speed in m/s, T is period in sec, and L is wavelength in m.)

If the water depth is 50 meters, does a 10-second period wave qualify as a deepwater wave? (Why or why not?)

a) No, wavelength is 500 m and therefore water depth must be >> 500 m so it's not a deep water wave
b) No, wavelength is 156 m and therefore water depth must be > 78 m so it's not a deep water wave
c) Yes, wavelength is 15.6 m and therefore water depth must be > 7.8 m, which it is so it's a deep water wave
d) Yes, wavelength is 1.56 m and therefore water depth must be > 20 m, which it is so it's a deep water wave
b) No, wavelength is 156 m and therefore water depth must be > 78 m so it's not a deep water wave
Deep water waves:
1) S = L / T, 2) S = 1.56 T , 3) L =1.56 T2
(S is speed in m/s, T is period in sec, and L is wavelength in m.)
Waveheight H is generally: H ≤ L / 7

What is the maximum height in deep water that a 10-second period wave can attain?

A. Roughly 22 m.
B. Roughly 22 m/s.
C. Roughly 1.4 m.
D. Roughly 7.8 m
A. Roughly 22 m.
Which of these will likely have the largest wave height?

A. Waves with period of 1 second
B. Waves produced in a storm with weak winds that lasted a short time
C. Waves produced in a storm with strong winds that lasted a long time
D. Waves produced by a school of parrot fish
C. Waves produced in a storm with strong winds that lasted a long time
A storm at sea will generate swells of varying period and wavelength. For a big storm, which waves will reach shore first?

A. Waves with period of 10 seconds
B. Wave with wavelength of 156 m
C. Wave with speed of 1.56 m/s
D. Wave with period of 20 seconds
E. None; they will all arrive at the same time.
D. Wave with period of 20 seconds
Why are the wave crests curved in along the continental margins?

A. The waves move faster there b/c the water depth is larger
B. The waves move faster there b/c the water is shallower
C. The waves move slower there b/c the water is shallower
D. Wave speed is independent of water depth
C. The waves move slower there b/c the water is shallower
Which of the following is (are) important in
generation of big waves in the ocean?

A. Fetch
B. Wind speed
C. Duration of wind persistence
D. All of the above
E. All but C
D. All of the above
Coasts with Semi-diurnal tides

A. Have a high tide about twice a day, with a period of 12 hours 25 mins
B. Have a high tide once every 27.3 days.
C. Have high tides about once a day with a period of about 24 hours.
D. Are not predicted by the dynamic theory of tides.
E. None of the above
A. Have a high tide about twice a day, with a period of 12 hours 25 mins
Why does Earth have two tidal bulges:

A. The Earth-moon system rotates during the 28-day Lunar cycle. This creates centrifugal forces that cause a bulge (tide) in ocean water on the opposite side of the Earth from the Moon
B. Gravity pulls ocean water up, creating a bulge (tide) beneath the moon and sun
C. There is really just one tidal bulge, and it's normally over Africa.
D. A and B
E. none of the above
D. A and B
Earth has two tidal bulges because:

A. The Sun generates a tidal bulge on one side, and the
moon generates a bulge on the opposite side
B. Gravity of the moon and sun together with centrifugal forces, caused by rotation of the Earth-moon system, produce two bulges.
C. One bulge is produced by the full moon and the other is produced by the new moon.
D. A and B
E. none of the above
B. Gravity of the moon and sun together with centrifugal forces, caused by rotation of the Earth-moon system, produce two bulges.
This shows a situation when ______ occur, which is the time of the month when tides are ______...

A. Spring Tides, Largest because the Sun and Moon act together
B. Spring Tides, Smallest because the Sun and Moon act in opposite directions
C. Neap Tides, Smallest because the Sun and Moon act in opposite directions
D. Neap Tides, Largest because the Sun and Moon act together
A. Spring Tides, Largest because the Sun and Moon act together
Modern coral reefs appear to be limited to regions where the

A) salinity is between 10 and 25 o/oo
B) concentration of particulates is high
C) mean annual temperature is >20°C
D) water depth is greater than 100 meters
E) none of the above
C) mean annual temperature is >20°C
In the World ocean, large fish are present in the same numbers today as they were 50 years ago.

A) True
B) False
B) False
Which of the following would help reduce agricultural runoff of nutrients to streams and rivers?

A) developing wetland or riparian buffers along streams
B) increase forested area at the expense of croplands
C) adoption of best practice methods of tilling and fertilizer application
D) all of the above
D) all of the above
For bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay, dissolved oxygen is:

A) lowest in the winter, because thermal stratification is greatest in winter
B) lowest in the winter, because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
C) lowest in the summer, because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
D) highest in the summer, because nutrient input and plant growth are largest in summer
C) lowest in the summer, because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
Corals:

A) photosynthesize carbohydrates
B) consume C02 and large fishes
C) consume phytoplankton and other simple photosynthetic organisms
D) proliferate in the deep ocean
C) consume phytoplankton and other simple photosynthetic organisms
Fish with long life spans are not a sustainable fishery resource because of

A) their small body weight at adulthood
B) their tough musculature
C) their ability to avoid nets and hooks
D) their slow reproductive rates
E) none of the above
D) their slow reproductive rates
Hypoxia is caused by

A) eutrophication
B) stable stratification of the water column
C) lack of oxygen in bottom waters
D) over sedimentation, which kills plants
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
In Chesapeake Bay, which of the following prohibit(s) oxygenation of bottom waters?

A) lack of phytoplankton production at the surface
B) strong upwelling and mixing of bottom waters with surface waters
C) large influxes of cold water to the bay
D) stable stratification of the water column
E) All of the above
D) stable stratification of the water column
Deep-water swells tend to sort themselves out during travel. The first waves to arrive will have:

A) very small wave height
B) the slowest velocity
C) the longest wavelength
D) the shortest period
E) none of the above
C) the longest wavelength
The speed or celerity of deep-water waves

A) increases with increasing water depth
B) increases with increasing wave period
C) decreases with increasing wave height
D) is constant regardless of wavelength
E) none of the above
B) increases with increasing wave period
The motion of water particles beneath ocean waves in deep water vanishes at distances below the surface exceeding

A) the wave height H
B) 1/2 the wave length L
C) 100 meters
D) 50 meters
E) none of the above
B) 1/2 the wave length L
Which of the following is a factor in the development of deep-water swells?

A) All but Ekman transport
B) Ekman transport
C) Fetch
D) Wind speed
E) Duration of wind
A) All but Ekman transport
Tsunami are

A) shallow-water waves, caused by vertical motion of the seafloor
B) deep water waves
C) caused by the Coriolis effect
D) All of the above
E) none of the above
A) shallow-water waves, caused by vertical motion of the seafloor
Ocean waves in deep water have a celerity that

A) is proportional to 3/4 of the water depth d
B) increases with increasing wave length
C) decreases with increasing wave height
D) decreases with increasing wind strength and fetch
E) none of the above
B) increases with increasing wave length
If you were floating on a life raft at sea, the passage of deep water waves would move you

A) up and down
B) in the direction of the wave, by 1/2 the wavelength per hour
C) to the left and right relative to the wave propagation direction
D) all of the above
A) up and down
Shallow water waves interact with the bottom and therefore particle motions near the base of these waves are elliptical rather than circular

A) True
B) False
A) True
Wave trains travel

A) at the same speed as individual waves in he group
B) at half the speed of individual waves in the group
C) at the speed of a locomotive, hence their name
D) at twice the speed of individual waves in the group
E) only in narrow ocean passages
B) at half the speed of individual waves in the group
Key terms for ocean waves include:

A) wavelength L, period T, and frequency f
B) water particle motion and wave motion
C) speed or celerity
D) wave height
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
Tidal amplitude increases progressively away from amphidromic points

A) True
B) False
A) True
The moon generates a tidal bulge that is about twice that generated by the sun:

A) True
B) False
A) True
In this figure, the times marked A (larger wavelengths before shorter ones) and B (shorter wavelengths before larger ones) in the upper panel show

A) Spring tides and Neap Tides, respectively
B) Neap tides and Spring Tides, respectively.
C) Spring tides only.
D) Neap Tides only.
E) none of the above
A) Spring tides and Neap Tides, respectively
The tidal range toward the center of an amphidromic system is ____ the range at the edges of the system.

A) smaller than
B) larger than
C) about the same as
D) of longer duration than
E) none of the above are correct
A) smaller than
Amphidromic points are:

A) semi-diurnal tides
B) the center of the circus "big top"
C) the focus for cotidal and corange lines
D) the moment of change from spring to neap tide
E) none of the above
C) the focus for cotidal and corange lines
Earth has two tidal bulges because:

A) The Sun's bulge is biggest at noon and the moon's bulge is biggest at night
B) Gravity together with centrifugal forces, caused by rotation of the Earth-moon-sun system, produce two bulges.
C) One bulge is produced by the full moon and the other is produced by the new moon.
D) (A) and (B)
E) none of the above
B) Gravity together with centrifugal forces, caused by rotation of the Earth-moon-sun system, produce two bulges.
Centrifugal "forces"

A) result from inertia and rotation.
B) cause low tides, while gravity causes high tides.
C) are the main cause of deep water ocean waves.
D) cause neap tides but not spring tides.
E) all of the above
A) result from inertia and rotation.
Amphidromic tidal circulation involves

A) a counter-clockwise pattern of flow around the basins of the N. hemisphere.
B) tidal crests that move as waves
C) tidal crests that rotate about the amphidromic point and make one complete cycle every 12 hours and 25 minutes
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
D) all of the above
Tides do not vary from summer to winter in a given location because Earth is always the same distance from the sun and moon.

A) True
B) False
B) False
Tides are a product of

A) gravity and wind.
B) surface water currents driven by wind.
C) Ekman transport and thermal transport.
D) gravitational and centrifugal forces exerted by the sun and moon
E) all of the above
D) gravitational and centrifugal forces exerted by the sun and moon
Many coasts have semidiurnal tides because

A) Wind action is greatest during daylight hours while the sun is up
B) Diurnal tides occur primarily on the western margin of continents
C) Mixed tides generally have smaller range and thus are often misidentified
D) There are two high-tide bulges on Earth, produced by gravity and centrifugal forces, and Earth spins under both of these bulges during a 24 hour 50 minute period
E) none of the above
D) There are two high-tide bulges on Earth, produced by gravity and centrifugal forces, and Earth spins under both of these bulges during a 24 hour 50 minute period
Semi-diurnal tides

A) produce a high tide about twice a day with a period of 12 hrs. 25 mins.
B) produce a low tide once every 2.7 days.
C) produce a high tide about once a day with a period of about 24 hours.
D) are not predicted by the dynamic theory of tides.
E) none of the above
A) produce a high tide about twice a day with a period of 12 hrs. 25 mins.
A mesotidal coast with a diurnal tide would have:

A) a low tide every 12 hrs. 25 min. with less than 2 m amplitude
B) a low tide every 24 hrs 50 min. with 2 to 4 m amplitude
C) a low tide every 12 hrs. 25 min. with greater than 4 m amplitude
D) a low tide every 24 hrs 50 mins. with greater than 4 m amplitude
E) a low tide every 12hrs 25 mins. with 2 to 4 m amplitude
B) a low tide every 24 hrs 50 min. with 2 to 4 m amplitude
The tidal bulges on Earth:

A) Rotate 360° during a day just like everything on Earth's surface
B) Make half a revolution each day, which is why there are two bulges.
C) Rotate from the north pole to the south pole and back every 24 hours.
D) Are always directly over the equator.
E) none of the above
E) none of the above