47 terms

Psychology Core Concepts Chapter 6: Learning

Psychology Core Concepts, fifth edition, by Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, and Ann L. Weber. Chapter 6: Learning
A lasting change in behavior or mental processes that results from experience
Learning not to respond to the repeated (unimportant) presentation of a stimulus
Mere exposure effect
A learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed
example: effectiveness of advertisement
Behavioral learning
Forms of learning, such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses
Classical conditioning
A form of behavior learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus
Neutral stimulus
Any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learning. When it is brought into a conditioning experiment, the researcher will call it a conditioned stimulus (CS). The assumption is that some conditioning occurs after even one paring of the CS and UCS
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
In classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response
Unconditioned response (UCR)
In classical conditioning, the response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
The initial learning stage in classical conditioning, during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response. Customarily, in a conditioning experiment, the neutral stimulus is called a conditioned stimulus when it is first paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Conditioned response
In classical conditioning, a response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Extinction (in classical conditioning)
The weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus
ex) stop giving food when ringing bell and dog learn not to come later
Spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay
Stimulus generalization
The extension of a learned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
ex) dog salivates in response to a tone similar like a bell
Stimulus discrimination
Learning to respond to a particular stimulus but not to stimuli that are similar
ex) One tone was followed by food while the another was not, the dog gradually learned to discriminate between the tones
Taste-aversion learning
A biological tendency in which an organism learns, after a single experience, to avoid a food with a certain taste, if eating it is followed by illness
An observable, voluntary behavior that an organism emits to "operate" on, or have an effect on, the environment
Operant conditioning
A form of behavioral learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences - that is, by the stimuli that follow the response
Law of effect
The idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or "stamped" into the organism
A condition (involving either the presentation or removal of a stimulus) that occurs after a response and strengthens that response
Positive reinforcement
A stimulus presented after a response and increasing the probability of that response happening again
Negative reinforcement
The removal of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus, contingent upon a particular behavior
Operant chamber
A boxlike apparatus that can be programmed to deliver reinforcers and punishers contingent on an animal's behavior. The operant chamber is often called a "Skinner box"
Reinforcement contingencies
Relationships between a response and the changes in stimulation that follow the response
Continuous reinforcement
A type of reinforcement schedule by which all correct responses are reinforced
An operant learning technique in which a new behavior is produced by reinforcing responses that are similar to the desired response
Intermittent reinforcement
A type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced; also called partial reinforcement
Extinction (in operant conditioning)
A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement
Schedules of reinforcement
Programs specifying the frequency and timing of reinforcements
Ratio schedule
A program by which reinforcement depends on the number of correct responses
Interval schedule
A program by which reinforcement depends on the time interval elapsed since the last reinforcement
Fixed ration schedules
Programs by which reinforcement is contingent upon a certain, unvarying number of responses
Variable ratio schedules
Reinforcement programs by which the number of responses required for a reinforcement varies from trial to trial
Fixed interval schedules
Programs by which reinforcement is contingent upon a certain, fixed time period
Variable interval schedules
Programs by which the time period between reinforcements varies from trial to trial
Primary reinforcers
Reinforcers, such as food and sex, that have an innate basis because of their biological value to an organism
Conditioned reinforcers or secondary reinforcers
Stimuli, such as money or tokens, that acquire their reinforcing power by a learned association with primary reinforcers
instinctive drift
The tendency of an organism's innate responses interfere with learned behavior.
Token economy
A therapeutic method, based on operant conditioning, by which individuals are rewarded with tokens, which act as secondary reinforcers. The tokens can be redeemed for a variety of rewards and privileges
Premack principle
The concept, developed by David Premack, that a more-preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
An aversive stimulus which, occurring after a response, diminishes the strength of that response
Positive punishment
The application of an aversive stimulus after a response
Negative punishment
The removal of an attractive stimulus after a response
Insight learning
A form of cognitive learning, originally described by the Gestalt psychologists, in which problem solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganization of perceptions
Cognitive map
A mental representation of physical space
Observational learning
A form of cognitive learning in which new responses are acquired after watching others' behavior and the consequences of their behavior
Long-term potentiation
A biological process, involving physical changes that strengthen the synapses in groups of nerve cells, which is believed to be the neural basis of learning