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History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals Ch. 19, 20 & 21
Terms in this set (78)
the set of guidelines and practices that a nation follows in its relations with other nations
Washington's Farewell Address
President George Washington's final message to the nation, which primarily covered domestic issues but also recommended avoiding alliances with other nations
the art of conducting negotiations with other nations
tools to use in pursuing foreign policy goals
diplomacy, financial aid in the form of grants or loans, threat or the use of armed force
in foreign policy, the belief that international relations should be guided by pragmatic self-interest-practical goals such as national defense and access to resources
national security, increased trade with other nations, and access to overseas resources
in foreign policy, the belief that moral values should influence international relations
promote America's founding ideals—particularly democracy, liberty, and rights—to ensure a better world not just for Americans, but for all people.
two key principles of U.S. foreign policy (by George Washington)
neutrality and unilateralism
not taking sides in wars between other nations
a response to the outbreak of war between France and Great Britain in 1793.
America became an ally with the ______ during the War of Independence. _______ leaders had issued a statement of revolutionary ideals known as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Two years later, they had abolished ______ monarchy and established a republic. Many Americans were eager to support the _______ in their struggle for liberty.
______ were eager to side with France, pointing out that the United States and France had signed a treaty of alliance during the War of Independence.
_______ argued against taking sides. They warned that with a tiny army, the United States was ill prepared for war.
______ issued a proclamation of neutrality. It stated that the policy of the United States was to "pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent [warring] powers."
a policy of not seeking military or political alliances with foreign powers
Duties of neutrality of U.S.
It could not give aid to either side in a conflict. Nor could it allow a warring nation to use its harbors or territories as a base of operations.
Rights of neutrality of U.S.
its citizens to live in peace without fear of attack, to trade freely with other nations, including those at war
France and Britian
seized U.S. ships and kidnapped sailors
1809, President James Madison
declared war against Britain when they wouldn't stop seizing U.S. ships and kidnapping sailors
War of 1812
the war between the United States and Britain from 1812 to 1814, prompted mainly by anger at British seizures of U.S. ships and sailors and ending in a draw
The Treaty of Ghent
called for "a firm and universal Peace between His Britannic Majesty and the United States." to end the War of 1812
issued a decree extending its colony south into territory claimed jointly by the United States and Great Britain.
President James Monroe's policy of warning European powers against future colonization in the Western Hemisphere
President James Monroe's policy of warning European powers against interference in Latin American republics
the declaration by President James Monroe in 1823 warning European powers against future colonization in the Western Hemisphere or interference in Latin American republics
______ appealed to the United States in the name of the "immortal Monroe" to intervene.
to give up or grant land to another country, typically by treaty
Louisiana Purchase (French Territory)
For the price of $15 million, less than 3 cents an acre, the United States could double its territory
purchase the Louisiana territory (French)
the belief that the United States was meant to spread its founding ideals and democratic way of life across the continent and beyond.
expansion made the nation more secure by removing foreign threats on its borders.
______hoped growth could come about through diplomacy.
to give up or grant land to another country, typically by treaty
the 1836 rebellion of Texans against Mexican rule
the war with Mexico from 1846 to 1847, resulting in Mexico ceding to the United States a huge region from Texas to California
a nation protected and controlled by a stronger nation
the exaggerated style of newspaper reporting during the 1890s that was sparked by the rivalry between two New York City newspapers and helped inflame public support for war with Spain
Yellow Kid cartoons
comic set in New York's poor, rough-and-tumble ethnic neighborhoods and featured a bald-headed street urchin dressed in a bright yellow nightshirt.
newspapers, magazines, and other methods of communicating to a mass audience
de Lôme letter
the ______ called President McKinley "weak and catering to the rabble and, besides, a low politician."
a cessation of hostilities
a formal statement by a government about a course of action
a battleship sunk in Havana harbor in 1898, an event that helped rouse public support for war with Spain
a volunteer cavalry regiment recruited by Theodore Roosevelt to fight in Cuba in the Spanish-American War
San Juan Hill
the key battle in Cuba during the Spanish-American War
a first draft of a treaty to be submitted for ratification
an organization formed during the Spanish-American War to oppose the establishment of U.S. colonies
provisions in the Cuban constitution, added as a condition for the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 1902, allowing the United States to intervene in Cuban affairs and to buy or lease land for naval bases
the political, economic, military, and cultural goals that a nation considers important
Big Stick Policy
President Theodore Roosevelt's strong-arm approach to foreign affairs, emphasizing diplomacy backed by force
President Theodore Roosevelt's assertion that, as a direct corollary of the Monroe Doctrine, the United States could intervene to preserve peace and order in the Western Hemisphere and protect U.S. interests
President William Howard Taft's approach to foreign policy, focusing on encouraging and protecting U.S. trade and investment in Latin America and Asia
President Woodrow Wilson's approach to foreign policy, focusing on promoting democratic ideals abroad
the right of people of other nations to determine their own government, free of outside influence
the canal built by the United States through the Isthmus of Panama to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
the taking control of a territory and adding it to a country
spheres of influence
areas in which a single nation controlled trading rights, as foreign powers did in China during the 1890s
Open Door Policy
a U.S. policy issued in 1899 stating that foreign nations must allow free trade in China
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
gained independence after the Spanish-American War
Territories ceded to U.S. after Spanish-American War
Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
Henry Cabot Lodge
The U.S. Must Expand to Compete
The U.S. Should Become a Power for Peace
The U.S. Should Spread "Anglo-Saxon Civilization"
Alfred T. Mahan
The U.S. Must Become a Great Sea Power
In 1903 Roosevelt sent warships to prevent _______ troops from intervening in building the Panama canal. The revolt succeeded, and the United States quickly recognized Panama as an independent nation.
responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, supported imperialism. Was assassinated by an anarchist.
1867 purchase of _______ from Russia for $7.2 million. With this purchase, the United States gained about 586,000 square miles at a cost of approximately 2 cents an acre. At the time, many Americans saw _______ as a frozen wasteland. They changed their minds later, especially after gold was found there in 1880.
In 1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico formally recognized the annexation of Texas, with the Rio Grande as its border. It also ceded a huge region stretching from Texas to _______ to the United States. In return for the Mexican Cession, the United States paid Mexico $15 million. While idealists worried that the war had been an unjust land grab, realists cheered the results. The United States had increased its territory by about one third. Mexico, in contrast, had lost half of its territory.
In 1917, President Wilson signed the Jones Act, making _______ a U.S. territory. ________ became citizens but were not granted all the rights of citizenship. They could not elect their own governor or vote in U.S. elections.
a U.S. "trading post" island
On December 10, the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. Spain agreed to three main points. First, it granted independence to Cuba. Second, it ceded Puerto Rico and the Pacific island of ______ to the United States. And third, it ceded the Philippines to the United States in exchange for a payment of $20 million. Under the treaty, Puerto Rico, ______, and the Philippines became American possessions. The United States was now a colonial empire.
Despite some reforms, the political situation did not improve significantly. In 1895, Cubans again rebelled. This second struggle for independence was led by _______, a Cuban poet, journalist, and statesman. Forced to leave Cuba because of his revolutionary activities, ______ lived in the United States from 1881 to 1895. Even while he was living abroad, ______ inspired his fellow Cubans with calls for liberty. He wrote, "Like bones to the human body . . . so is liberty the essence of life. Whatever is done without it is imperfect." ______ sailed to Cuba in 1895 to lead the revolt but was soon killed in combat. Nevertheless, the rebellion continued.
a person who believes that nations should act as a community and should interact with one another peacefully and cooperatively
Capture or taking of something by force
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