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process bywhich chemical substances (nutrients) are acquired from the environment and used in cellular activities
reuired in small amounts, involved in enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure
micronutrients or trace elements
contain carbon and hydrogen atoms and are usually the products of living things. ex, methane(CH4), carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
atom or molecule that contains a combination of atoms other than carbons or hydrogen. ex.-metals and their salts, Magnesium sulfate, ferric nitrate, sodium phosphate, geses-O2 and H20
chemical analysis of microbial cytoplasm
70% water, 96% of cells composed of carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,phospohorous,sulfur and nitrogen
must obtain carbon in an organic form made by other living organisms such as proteins, carbs, lipids and nucleic acids.
an organism that uses CO2 , an inorganic gas as it carbon source. Not nutrionally dependent on other living things
organic counds that can't be synthesized by an organism because they lack the genetic and metabolic mechanisms to synthesize them
essential organic nutrients
two categories if areobic respiration
saprobes-free-living organisms that feed on organic detrius from dead organisms
Parasites-derive nutrients from host
doesn't require energy, exist in a gradient and move from higher to lower concentration
3 cardinal temeratures
minimum-lowest permitting micribial growth
maximum-highest permitting microbial growth
optimun-promotes fastest rate of growth and metabolism=37 deg C or 98.6 F
3 temperature adaptation groups
psychrophile-optimum temperature below 15 deg C can grow at 0 Deg C
Mesophiles-optimum temp 20-40 deg C
Thermophiles-optimum temp greater than 45 deg C
cells that have developed ezymers to neutralize toxic products(oxidative processes)
superoxide dismutase, catalase
can survide under extreme pressure and will rupture if exposed to normal atmospheric presure
actions of one organism affect the success or survival of others in the same community(competition)
nonpathogenic residential flora in the human body such as symbiotic bacteria, fungi and a few protozoa
normal microbial flora
result when organisms attatch to a substrate by some form of extracellular matrix that binds them together in complex organized layers. They dominate the structures of most natural enviroments on earth.
divion of bacterial cells occurs mainly through. the process involves a parent cell that inlarges, duplicates its chromosome and forms a central transverse septum diving the cell into 2 daughter cells
when populations typically display a predictable pattern over time in laboratory studies
lag phase-flat period of adjustment, exponential growth phase-period of maximum growth, stationary phase-rate of cell growth equals rate of cell death by depletion of nutrients and 02, death phase-limiting factors intensify,cells die exponentially
stages of normal growth curve
measures cloudiness, turbidity, reflects the relative population size. the opaqueness of liquid. simplest way to count bacteria
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