25 terms

Ch. 6 Bio In Focus

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Induced Fit
Induced by entry of the substrate, the change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate.
Competitive Inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
Non-competitive Inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
Metabolism
*The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways.
Catabolic Pathway
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
Andenosine Triphosphate
The letters in ATP represent the words
Cofactor
A nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Often inorganic, nonprotein helpers such as zinc, iron, or copper
Coenzyme
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions
2nd law of Thermodynamics
The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat, and in spontaneous reactions, the free energy of the system also decreases.
Activation Energy
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
Spontaneous
a process that can occur without an input of energy
Transition State
The "Hump"
Endergonic
A chemical reaction that requires the input of energy in order to proceed.
Entropy
A measure of disorder, or randomness
Active Site
Region on the surface of an enzyme where the substrate binds and where the reaction occurs.
ATP Hydrolosis
break a bond by adding water to ATP, which results in ADP + Phosphate
Allosteric Regulation
The binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
Nonspontaneous
A change that requires a constant input of energy to occur, or the change will stop or reverse itself.
1st Law of Thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Allosteric Site
A site on an enzyme other than the active site, to which a specific substance binds, thereby changing the shape and activity of the enzyme.
Anabolic
a chemical reaction where small molecules join together to make larger molecules e.g. photosynthesis.
Enzyme
A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Feed Inhibition
a form of metabolic control in which the end product of a chain of enzymatic reactions reduces the activity of an enzyme early in the pathway.
Gibb's Free Energy
G
Exergonic
A reaction that results in the release of free energy