Excelsior U.S. History Unit 2 (Ch. 7)

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Ellis Island
The main immigration station in New York Harbor where the process could take many hours to determine if they met the legal requirements for entering the US.
Angel Island
The main immigration station in the San Francisco Bay where immigrants endured harsh questioning and long detention in filthy buildings while they waited to find out if the would be admitted.
Melting Pot
A mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs.
Nativism
Overt favoritism toward native-born Americans, which led to anti-immigrant groups and restrictions on immigration.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Congressional Act that banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials from 1882-1943. This greatly diminished the number of Chinese immigrants to America.
Gentlemen's Agreement
The deal made by President Theodore Roosevelt and Japan that limited emigration of unskilled workers into the US in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order.
Urbanization
The growth of cities, particularly in the Northeast and Midwest. Most immigrants settled into cities because they were the cheapest and most convenient place to live. They also offered work in mills and factories, as well as giving the immigrants a local community to support them, keep their native languages and traditions, and religions alive.
Americanization movement
Designed to assimilate people of wide- ranging cultures into the dominant culture.
Tenement
Working-class families left the central city and immigrants often took over their old houses with multiple families dwelling in these houses which were overcrowded and unsanitary.
Mass Transit
Transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes which enabled workers to go to and from jobs more easily.
Social Gospel movement
An early reform program that preached salvation through service to the poor. The program inspired reformers to help the urban poor.
Settlement House
Established by reformers, these were community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants, and allowed for educational, cultural, and social services.
Jane Adams
One of the most influential members of the Social Gospel movement, she founded Chicago's Hull House.
Political Machine
An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city who offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Influential and powerful members of the community would work together to get their candidate elected and guarantee success. These groups would provide immigrants with full citizenship, housing and jobs in return for votes.
Graft
The illegal use of political influence for personal gain. The political machines turned to this when the loyalty of its voters was not enough to carry the election.
Boss Tweed
The nickname of the head of Tammany Hall, New York City's powerful Democratic political machine who led a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city of at least $10 million.
Patronage
Giving a government job to people who helped get the candidate elected regardless of qualification.
Civil Service
A job in government administration which reformers believed should be given based on qualifications, not on an individuals political views or who recommended them.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican President, elected in 1876, who could not convince Congress to support civil service reform, so he set up commissions to investigate customs, fired two of the top officials, and infuriated the Republican Party.
James A. Garfield
Ohio congressman who became President when the Republican convention backed him in spite of his ties to reformers by adding a Vice-President with ties to the Stalwarts. He made gradual progress with civil service reform. He turned down a lawyer named Charles Guiteau for a job and gave it to a reformer and Guiteau shot him for it declaring, "I did it and I will go to jail for it. I am a Stalwart and Arthur is now president."
Chester A. Arthur
Republican Vice-President for James Garfield who became President when Garfield was shot and killed. Even though he had ties to the Stalwarts, he turned to reformer once he became President.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
The Congressional Act, enacted by President Arthur which authorized a bipartisan commission to appoint federal jobs through a merit system based on the candidates performance on an exam.
Grover Cleveland
Democratic President who attempted to lower tariff rates, but Congress refused to support him in his first term. In his second, he tried again and succeeded briefly before President McKinley raised it again.
Benjamin Harrison
The grandson of a former President, his campaign was financed by large contributions from companies that wanted tariffs even higher than they already were, and when he won, he raised tariffs to their highest level yet.