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Terms in this set (74)
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.
Forms of matter
The 3 most common forms of matter are, solids, liquids, and gases.
The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is high energy matter consisting of positively and negatively charged particles.
Plasma is the most common state of matter found in space. It can also be found in lightning flashes, fluorescent lighting and stars such as the sun.
You can describe, the state, the color, the texture, and the odor of matter using your senses. You can also describe matter by using measurements, such as mass, volume, and density.
Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
Volume is the amount of space that a sample of matter occupies.
density is the mass per unit volume of a substance.
What two main factors determine the state of matter?
Particle motion and particle forces
Particles in motion
Particles such as atoms, ions, or molecules, moving in different ways make up matter. The particles that make up some matter are close together and vibrate back and forth. In other types of matter, the particles are farther apart, move freely and can spread out. Regardless of how close particles are to each other, they all move in random motion-movement in all directions and at different speeds. However, particles will move in straight lines until they collide with something. Collisions usually change the speed and direction of the particles movements.
Forces between particles
If the motion of particles slows the particles move closer together. This is because the attraction between them pulls them toward each other. Strong attractive forces hold particles close together. As the motion of particles increases, particles move further apart. The attractive forces between particles get weaker. The spaces between them increase and the particles can slip past one another. As the motion of particles continues to increase, they move even farther apart. Eventually the distance between particles is so great that there are little or no attractive forces between the particles. The particles move randomly ans spread out.
A solid is matter that has definite shape and definite volume.
Particles in a solid
The strong attractive forces and slow motion of the particles keep them tightly held in their positions. The particles simply vibrate back and forth in place.
Types of solids
All solid are not the same. For example a diamond and a piece of charcoal both contain particles that strongly attract to each other and vibrate in place. What makes them different is the arrangement of their particles. The arrangement of a diamond is a crystalline solid. It has particles arranged in a specific repeating order. Charcoal is an amorphous solid. It has particles arranged randomly. Different particle arrangements give these materials different properties.
A liquid is matter with a definite volume but no definite shape.
Liquids flow and take the shape of their containers.
Particles in liquids are free to move past other particles.
The attractive forces in liquids are weaker than those in solids.
Particles in a liquid
Particles in a liquid move faster and more freely than particles in a solid. This is because of the weaker attractive forces in liquids. The farther apart the particles move the weaker the attractive forces. The weather forces also allow liquids to flow and take the shape of their containers.
Viscosity is the measure of a liquids resistance to flow.
Honey has a high viscosity while water has a low one.
Viscosity is due to particle mass, particle shape, and the strength of the attraction between the particles of a liquid.
In general, the stronger the attractive forces between particles, the higher the viscosity.
For many liquids, viscosity decreases when heat is applied. The heat makes the attractive forces weaker and allows particles to move faster.
Large particles or ones with complex shapes tend to move slowly and have difficulty slipping past each other.
What is cohesion?
Cohesion is the attraction between similar molecules.
The particles on top have no particles above so they are attracted to the ones below them and next to them which form a strong layer.
describe the movement between particles in a liquid and the forces between them.
The movement in particles is faster than the particle movement in a solid and the attractive forces are much weaker.
A gas is matter that has no definite shape or volume.
The particles are far apart and move freely.
There are slight or weak attractive forces between particles
Particles in a gas
In a gas, particles move much faster and the attractive forces are weaker than the attractive forces in a liquid and a solid.
When the distance between particles change then the attractive forces also change.
Forces between particles in a gas
The attractive forces between particles in a gas are weak or absent. This is why gases can spread out and fill their containers
The gas state of a substance that is normally a solid or a liquid at room temperature is called vapor. For example water is normally a liquid at room temperature. When it is in a gas state, such as in air, it is called water vapor.
What is the difference between crystalline and amorphous solids?
The difference between crystalline and amorphous solids is that the particles in crystalline solids are arranged in a specific pattern that repeats. The particles in Amorphous solids are arranged randomly.
Different particle arrangements give these materials different properties. For example a diamond is a hard material and charcoal is a brittle material.
A measurement of how strongly particles attract to one another at the surface of a liquid is____________
Define solid, liquid, gas in your own words.
A solid is something with a definite volume and a definite shape. Solid particles are tightly packed it has strong attractive forces, and its particles vibrate in place.
A liquid is something with definite volume but no definite shape. Liquid particles move more freely and its attractive forces are weaker than the attractive forces in solids.
A gas is something with no definite volume and no definite shape. Gas particles are far apart and move rapidly and freely. The attractive forces between gas particles are very weak or absent.
A measurement or a liquids resistance to flow is known as its__________
Which state of matter is rarely found on earth?
a gas b liquid c plasma d solid?
compare particle movement in solids, liquids and gasses.
Particle movement in solids is slower than movement in a liquid and gas, particles stay close together and vibrate in place.
Particle movement in liquids is faster than movement in a solid but slower than movement in a gas, particles move more freely.
Particle movement in a gas is faster than particle movement in a liquid or solid. Particles move fast in random directions, on account of little or no attractive forces.
Hypethesize how you could change the viscosity of a cold liquid and explain why your idea would work.
I would add thermal energy to the liquid and it would give the liquid less viscosity. It would work because adding heat to most liquids will decrease the viscosity.
For example if I took some cold maple syrup and heated it up then, it would become less viscose because heat allows the particles to move farther apart and more freely. Thus allowing the syrup to flow more quickly.
Summarize the relationship between the motion of particles and the attractive forces between particles.
When attractive forces are strong it causes the particles to stay closer together such as in solids and vibrate in place. When the attractive forces are weaker it causes the particles to move more freely and farther away from each other such as in liquids. When there are little or no attractive forces the particles move at high speeds in random directions such as in gasses.
Kinetic energy is the energy an object has due to its motion. The faster particles move, the more kinetic energy they have. Solid objects have the least kinetic energy because their particles vibrate in place. Gases have the most kinetic energy because their particles move very quickly.
Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object. Within a given substance, a temperature increase means that the particles on average, are moving at greater speeds, or have greater kinetic energy. Therefore, the higher the temperature of a substance the more kinetic energy is produced.
How is temperature related to particle motion?
Temperature is related to particle motion because temperature increases the motion of particles when it is applied to an object.
Particles also have potential energy. Potential energy is stored energy due to the interactions between particles or objects. Potential energy typically increases when objects get farther apart and decreases when objects get closer together.
The chemical potential energy of particles increases and decreases as the distances between particles increases and decreases.
Thermal energy is the total potential and kinetic energies of an object. You can change an objects state of matter by adding or removing thermal energy. When you add thermal energy to an object, the particles either move faster (increased kinetic energy) or spread farther apart,(increased potential energy) or both. If enough thermal energy is added a change of state can occur.
How do thermal energy and temperature differ?
Thermal energy is the measure of the total potential and kinetic energy in an object. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of all particles in an object.
Melting is the temperature at which the solid state changes to the liquid state. At first the thermal energy and the temperature increase. The temperature stops increasing once it reaches the melting point.
Once a solid reaches its melting point, the temperature stays the same but the thermal energy continues to increase. The thermal energy increases because the potential energy is continuing to increase.
freezing is the process that is the reverse of melting. The state at which matter changes from a liquid state to the solid state is its freezing point.
Vaporization is the change in state of a liquid into a gas.
What are two types of vaporization?
Evaporation and boiling
Vaporization that occurs within a liquid is called boiling. The temperature in which boiling occurs in a liquid is called its boiling point. The kinetic energy of particles increases until it reaches its boiling point.
At the boiling point the potential energy of particles begins increasing. The particles move farther apart until the liquid turns into a gas.
Evaporation is vaporization that occurs only at the surface of a liquid.
The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called condensation. For example, dry ice.
Sublimation is the change of state from a solid to a gas without going through the liquid state.
Deposition is the change of state of a gas to a solid without going through the liquid. For deposition to occur, thermal energy has to be removed from a gas.
Describe the changes in thermal energy as water goes from a solid to a liquid.
Thermal energy changes the particle speed and weakens the attractive forces while it is increasing as water goes from a solid to a liquid.
Conservation of mass and energy
When matter changes state, matter and energy are always conserved. When water vaporizes it appears to disappear. If the invisible gas is captured and its mass added to the remaining mass of the liquid, you would see that matter is conserved. This is also true for energy.
The measure of average kinetic energy of the particles in a material is ___________
Define kinetic energy and thermal energy in your own words.
Kinetic energy is the energy an object has due to its motion.
Thermal energy is the total potential and kinetic energy of an object.
The change of a liquid into a gas is known as___________
The process that is opposite of condensation is known as a deposition b freezing c melting d vaporization
explain how temperature and particle motion are related.
A rise in temperature usually raises the speed of the particles.
Describe the relationship between temperature and thermal energy.
Temperature is the measure of kinetic energy in a material and thermal energy is the total potential and kinetic energies in a material. If you add temperature to an object then it raises the speed of particles as does it with when you add thermal energy.
Sublimation and deposition
Sublimation=solid to gas without going through the liquid state.
Deposition=gas to solid without going through the liquid state.
Generalize the changes in thermal energy when matter increases in temperature and then changes state.
The changes in thermal energy are that thermal energy begins to increase and when it changes state thermal energy will stay the same.
Summarize the energy and state changes that occur when freezing rain falls and solidifies on a wire fence.
The rain will change from a liquid to a solid by removing thermal energy which will cause freezing.
compare the amount of thermal energy needed to melt a solid and the amount of thermal energy needed to freeze the same liquid.
You will need to add thermal energy to melt a solid, but you will need to take away thermal energy to freeze it back into a solid.
What substance exists naturally as a solid, liquid, and a gas within Earth's temperature range?
Adding thermal energy
At the melting point of water, water particles vibrate so rapidly that they start to move out of place. At this point, added thermal energy only increases the distance between particles and decreases the attractive forces-melting occurs
What happens once melting is complete?
The average kinetic energy begins to increase as more thermal energy is added.
Understanding gas behavior
Changes in temperature, pressure, and volume affect the behavior of gasses more than they affect solids and liquids.
Kinetic molecular theory
• The kinetic molecular theory states that the particles in matter collide with other particles, other objects, and the walls of their container; and when particles collide, no energy is lost.
How does the kinetic molecular theory describe the behavior of a gas?
It describes the behavior of a gas by stating how particles in matter behave.
~Small particles make up matter
~these particles are in constant, random, motion.
~They collide with other particles, other objects, and the walls of their containers.
~when particles collide no energy is lost
What is pressure
When particles collide with their container, pressure results. For example, gas in a cylinder, might contain trillions of gas particles. These particles exert forces on the cylinder each time they strike it. When weight is added and the gas is compressed, the particles collide more frequently because there is less space to move around. This causes an increase in pressure.
Pressure is the amount of force applied per unit of area.
Pressure and volume
The more volume the less pressure there is. The less volume the more pressure there is because there is less space for the particles to move around in, so they collide more.
Boyle's Law states that pressure of a gas increases if the volume decreases and pressure of a gas decreases if the volume increases, when temperature is constant.
Formula for Boyle's Law?
V2 = __p1 v1______ p1 times v1 divided by p2
How does temperature and volume affect gas behavior?
It affects gas behavior because the lower the temperature, the less volume and more pressure is in the cylinder. As the temperature of a gas increases, the kinetic energy of the particles increases, causing the particles to move faster and farther apart. This movement increases the pressure from gas particles which causes the plunger to move up causing an increase in volume in the container.
Charles's Law states that the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, if the pressure is constant.
How is Boyle's law different from Charles's Law?
The difference is that Boyle's Law is about the relationship between volume and pressure of a gas when temperature is constant.
Charles's Law is about the relationship between temperature and volume of a gas when pressure remains constant.
Equation of Charles's law
V1 =V2 v1 over t1 equals v2 over t2
T kelvin= c° + 273
List the basic ideas of the kinetic molecular theory.
~ all matter is made up of small particles
~ Particles do not lose energy when they collide
~ Particles are in constant random motion
~Particles collide with other particles, objects, and the walls of their container.
______ is force applied per unit area
Which is held constant when a gas obeys Boyle's Law?
Explain how temperature, pressure, and volume are related in Boyle's law.
Temperature must remain constant in Boyle's law and, the volume of a gas decreases as pressure increases.
And volume of a gas increases as pressure decreases.