AP HuG -- Unit 6
Terms in this set (83)
a discipline that studies the impact of economic activities on the landscape and investigates reasons behind the locations of economic activities
the process by which economic activities on the earth's surface evolved from producing basic, primary goods to using factories for mass-producing goods for consumption
primary economic activity
the part of the economy that directly extracts products from the earth
secondary economic activity
the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into usable products
began in England during the late 18th century
the process of improving material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods.
countries where most people are no longer employed in industry
the part of the economy concerned with research, development, management, administration, processing, and disseminating information
more developed countries (MDCs)
countries that have experienced industrialization
less developed countries (LDCs)
countries that have not experience industrialization
countries (mostly in Asia and Latin America) that have experienced economic growth so they appear to be in between MDC and LDC.
rapid economic and political change that transformed the country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions
economic development measurement methods
gross domestic product per capita, types of jobs, worker productivity, access to raw materials, availability of consumer goods
gross domestic product (GDP)
the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country during a year
gross domestic product per capita
the average person's contribution to generating a country's wealth in a year
found by subtracting costs of raw materials and energy from the gross value of the product
literacy, access to formal education, good health care
Modernization model (westernization model)
claims that high-income countries can help poor countries by encouraging them to control population growth, increase food production, and take advantage of industrial technology
puts primary responsibility for global poverty on rich nations; holds that economic development of many countries is blocked by the fact that industrialized nations exploit them
take off stage
drive to technological maturity
high mass consumption
stage in which people build their lives around families, local communities, and religious beliefs
stage in which the country experiences something like industrial revolution, urbanization increases, technological and production breakthroughs occur, greater individualism, family and tradition is less important
drive to technological maturity
economic growth is widely accepted, higher living standards, cities grow, modernization is evident
high mass consumption
economic development steadily raises living standards as mass production encourages consumption of industrial products, high incomes, service sector jobs held by most workers.
explained economic development in 1974 using a model of the capitalist world economy; divided today's countries into three types: core countries, countries of the periphery, and countries of the semi periphery; says the world economy benefits rich societies and harms other countries by making them dependent on the core countries.
encourages LDCs to isolate fledgling businesses from competition of large international corporations
"Asian Tigers" (four tigers)
Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore
a strategy that seeks to directly integrate the country's economy into the global economy by concentrating on economic production that can find a place in international markets.
product life cycle
1) an innovator country produces something new
2) next that country moves on to other products
3) meanwhile other countries think of ways to make the first product better and cheaper
4) export it back to the innovator country
invented the steam engine
a former English factory worker who built the first U.S. textile mill in 1791 in Rhode Island
transfer of cargo from one type of carrier to another
diffusion of the Industrial Revolution
What does this picture depict?
oil and natural gas
What energy source replaced coal after World War I?
explains the locational pattern of economic activities by identifying factors that influence this pattern
develops around the location of natural resources such as the industrial belt in the British Midlands
as transportation increases, industry becomes less dependent on resource location
location of secondary industry factors
- variable costs: where energy, labor, and transportation is cheaper industries are encouraged to develop
- friction of distance: at some point the distance between materials and industry is too far to pay the price
- distance decay: as distance increases, business activity decreases until it becomes impractical to do business
German economic geographer; developed a model for the location of secondary industries -- the least cost theory
least cost theory
explained location of industries in terms of three factors: transportation, labor, agglomeration
the exodus of businesses from a crowded area
suggests that business owners can juggle expenses as long as labor, land rents, transportation, and other costs don't all go up at the same time
the influence on a firm's locational decision by locations chosen by its competitors.
variable revenue analysis
the firm's ability to capture a market that will earn it more customers and money than its competitors
describes the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
services that support economic activities
have mainly to do with transportation: bringing raw materials or parts into a factory and shipping the finished goods to the consumers or retailers
such as the North American copper industry; usually locate near to the raw materials because they are heavier and cost more to ship than the finished products
such as most canned food and beverage products; factory locations are usually determined by accessibility to the market.
such as clothing manufacturers shipping to NYC; cluster near their markets
such as fiber-spinning, weaving, or cutting and sewing of fabric into clothing; require skilled workers so they choose locations with
neither resource or market-oriented.
primary industrial regions of the world
exist within a belt that stretches from North America, through Europe, southern Russia, China, South Korea, and Japan;
western and central europe
eastern north america
russia and the Ukraine
primary industrial regions
areas of the largest agglomeration of industry
secondary industrial regions
where agglomeration of industry is less, but still significant
secondary industrial regions (geographic)
Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil
South Africa and Nigeria
Indian coastal areas and Ganges river
Malaysia and southern Australia
American Manufacturing belt
What does this picture represent?
New manufacturing regions in America
Southeast, Southwest, Northwest, San Francisco area, southern california
what railroad do the eastern industrial regions of Russia follow?
the first country in Eastern Asia to indusrialize primarily because they were out of most 19th century imperialist powers' way.
a remarkable government campaign for modernization and colonization
industrial and military leaders that came to political power.
Japan's dominant region of industrialization; includes Tokyo and other nearby cities and suburbs that form a huge metropolitan area.
has long been a political power, but only began major industrialization until the mid 20th century under communist leaders.
China's earliest industrial heartland; located in Manchuria; centered on major coal and iron deposits
Tokyo fish market
central fish market in Tokyo; sells to wholesalers who service the vast population centered on the Kanto Plain
Chinese Industrial Areas
countries that border the Pacific Ocean on their eastern shores
Special Economic Zones
government-designated areas where foreign investment is allowed and capitalistic ventures are encouraged
a manufacturing zone in northern Mexico; workers here have produced goods primarily for consumers in the U.S.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
a treaty signed in 1995 by Mexico, the US, and Canada which eliminated barriers to free trade among the three countries
international division of labor
some components of products are made in one country and the others in another
conglomerations of trade among countries within a region
Impact of Trading Blocs -- North America
most trade barriers between the United States, Mexico, and Canada have been eliminated over the past few decades
Impact of Trading Blocs -- The European Union
barriers have been eliminated between members of the EU and selectively with other european countries
Impact of Trading Blocs -- East Asia
economic development of many Pacific Rim countries has created a strengthening trade bloc in East Asia
companies that operate factories in countries other than the ones in which they are headquartered
companies comprised of many smaller firms that support the overall industry
employment in manufacturing as a share of total employment has fallen dramatically in the more developed countries