35 terms

Genetics TEST

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gene
specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
DNA
molecule that stores genetic information in all organisms
trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
variation
Difference among members of a species.
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
offspring
a new organism produced by one or more parents
base pairs
A-T, G-C
acquired trait
A trait that is not in your genes but is picked up from environmental factors.
inherited trait
a characteristic that is genetically passed from parent to offspring
inheritance
The process in which genetic material is passed from parents to their offspring.
pedigree
A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
punnet square
the diagram used to predict what traits an offspring will have based on what genes their parents have.
generation
the act of producing offspring or multiplying by such production
heterozygous
An organism that has two different forms for a trait
genotype
An organism's genetic makeup
phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
dominant
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
recessive
a trait that is not visible unless two copies of that allele are present
homozygous
having two identical forms for a given gene
Asexual Reproduction
a type of reproduction by which offspring come from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only
Sexual Reproduction
the development of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two different parents
Mitosis
a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent
Meiosis
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
Binary Fission
A type of asexual reproduction where a cell divides creating two cells, each having the potential to grow to the size of the original cell
Budding
a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Fertilization
the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
Conjugation
A type of sexual reproduction in single-celled organisms, in which two organisms or cells from the same species join together to exchange genetic material before undergoing cell division.
Gametes
a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote
Genetics
the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics
Genetic Disorder
an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect
Environmental Factor
Things in an environment that can change something about an organism
Genetic Factor
An inherited element or variable in our lives that cannot be altered.
Lifestyle Choices
Choices, made daily, of how to treat the body and mind.
Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome.
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