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Unit 7 Evolution
Terms in this set (57)
Events in the past occurred suddenly and we caused by mechanisms different than those operating in the present.
Mechanisms of change are constant over time.
Lamarks Ideas 1
Use and Disuse; parts of the body that are used get stronger and larger while parts of the body that aren't used weaken and deteriorate
Lamarks Ideas 2
Inheritance of acquired characteristics; an organism could pass the modification of use and disuse to its offspring.
Differences within a species
Genes passed down from parents
Differences that affect survivability
differences that affect the ability to reproduce
selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits
Influences of natural selection
3 Types of Selection
Curve drifts in one direction
Peak of curve increases and tail ends decrease
The curve has two peaks
A random event prevents many individuals from entering the next generation
A new population is started from a few individuals
populations with limited variation may not be able to adapt to new conditions, so maintenance of variability is advantageous to a population
Similarity resulting from common ancestry
Remnants of features that served a function in the organism's ancestors.
Independent evolution of similar features in different lineages.
Share common ancestry, but not necessarily similar function
Share similar function but not common ancestry
Gene flow is
A difference between the structure of two sexes
Selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than others to obtain mates.
The broad pattern of evolution above the species level.
Changes in allele frequencies in a population over time
Phylogenetic concept of species
Species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor
Morphological concept of species
characterizes a species by body shape and other structural features
Ecological concept of species
species in terms of its ecological niche, the sume of how members of the species interact with the nonliving and living parts of the enviroment
Biological concept of species
A species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable offspring
Analyze of population distributions due to natural selection
Sickle cell anemics can't go into high altitudes
Two species that occupy different habitats rarely encounter each other, even though there aren't physical barriers.
Example of habitat isolation
Two snakes of the same species, one lives in water and one is terrestrial.
Species that breed during different times
Example of temporal isolation
Two skunks of the same species, one breeds in late winter and one breeds in late summer
Courtship rituals that attract mates
Example of behavioral isolation
Some birds do dances to attract mates
Mating is attempted by morphological differences prevent completion
Example of mechanical isolation
Great Dane and Chihuahua
Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize the eggs of another species
Example of gametic isolation
Sea urchins release sperm and eggs into surrounding water, but it is difficult for gametes of another type of sea urchin to fuse proteins
Reduced hybrid viability
genes of different parent species may interact in ways that impair the hybrid's development or environment
Example of hybrid viability
Some species of salamanders may mate and hybridize, most don't complete development and those that do are frail
Reduced hybrid fertility
Hybrids develop and live, but are sterile.
Example of hybrid fertility
Male donkey and female horse make mule, mule is sterile.
Hybrids are viable and fertile, but when they mate the next generation are feeble or sterile.
Gene flow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations.
Example of allopatric speciation
Water level in a lake may subside, resulting in two or more small lakes. These lakes are now homes to separated populations.
Speciation occurs in populations that live in the same area.
Example of sympatric speciation
Maggot flies that lay there eggs on either Hawthorne apples or Domestic Apples.
Origin of the first genes on earth
Amino Acids and RNA Nucleotides polymerize and organic compounds assemble into protocells. First genetic material was short pieces of RNA capable of self-replication.
Consequences of the first oxygen in our atmosphere
Iron bands and rust.
Sequence of events for the evolution of life on earth
Cyanobacteria > Oxygen > Mitochondria > Chloroblasts > Plants > Symbiotic Relations
Connecting mechanism between shared features of domains of life?
Core processed between organisms
DNA & RNA
Endomembrane systems, including nuclear envelopes
Design a plan for collecting data concerning speciation and extinction
Use rock fossils, there is nothing older than the fossils of an organism.
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