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101 terms

Bio Lab Test 1

STUDY
PLAY
Procedure
The stepwise method, or sequence of steps, to be performed for the experiment.
Level of Treatment
Appropiate values to use for the independent variable
Control
Independent variable is held at an established level or is omitted. Serves as a benchmark that allows scientist to decide whether the predicted effect is really due to the independent variable.
Prediction
Based on the particular experiment designed to test a specific hypothesis. Written in if/then statements.
Allometry
Phenomenon whereby parts of an organism grow at different rates, or the disproportionate growth of a part in relation to the entire organism.
Isometric Growth
When two parts grow at the same rate
Allometric Growth
When two parts grow at disproportionate rates.
Compound Microscope
Scopes have a minimum of two magnifying lenses (ocular and objective lenses)
Binocular Microscopes
Have two eyepieces.
Monoculars
Have one eyepiece.
Light
Type of illumination used
Ex: visible light from a lamp
Head
Supports two sets of magnifying lenses.
Ocular
The lens in the eyepiece, which typically has a magnification of 10x.
Interpupillary Distance
In a binocular, the distance btwn the eyepieces.
Field View
Circle of light that one sees in the microscope
Objectives
Three lenses on the revolving nosepiece.
Revolving Nosepiece
Has the scanning, intermediate, and the high-power lens.
Scanning Lens
The shortest lens typically 4x
Intermediate Lens
Magnification of 10x
High-Power Lens
The longest lens with magnification of 40x
Arm
Supports the stage and condenser lens
Condenser Lens
Used to focus the light from the lamp through the specimen to be viewed.
Adjustment Knob
Adjust the height of the condenser.
Iris Diaphragm
Controls the width of the circle of light, therefore, the amount of light passing through the specimen.
Revolving Turret
In a microscope that has phase-contrast optics, where the condenser is housed.
Brightfield Microscopy
When the turret is set on 0, the normal optical arrangement is in place. What is this condition called?
Stage
Supports the specimen to be viewed.
Stage Adjustment Knobs
A mechanical stage can be moved right to left and back and forth by two ___________.
Stage Clips
Used to secure the slide
Coarse and Fine Adjustment Knobs
Used to adjust the distance between the stage and the objective.
Base
Acts as a stand for the microscope and houses the lamp
Light Intensity Lever
Can adjust the intensity of the light that passes through the specimen.
Parfocal Lens
A type of lens that requires little refocusing when moving from one lens to another.
Working Distance
The distance between the speciman and the objective lens.
Depth of Field
The thickness of thickness of the specimen that may be seen in focus at one time.
Stereoscopic Microscope
AKA dissecting microscope
List 2 differences of a stereoscopic microscope from a compound microscope
1) Depth of field greater=objects are seen in 3-D
2) light source can be directed down onto as well as up through an object=permits viewing thick obj
Reflected Light
AKA Incident Light
Light directed down on the object.
Transmitted Light
Light passing through the object.
How do you prepare living material to be observed under the microscope
Prepare a wet mount
List 3 functions of the coverslip
1.flatten the preparation 2.keep preparation from drying out 3.protect the objective lenses.
How much more can an electron micrscope magnify than a light microscope
1,000X larger due to resolving power
Resolving Power
Depends on the wavelength of light passing trough the specimen, the shorter the wavelenth, the greater the resolution
Explain how electrons play a part in the electron microscope
Bc electrons are a source of illumination and have much shorter wavelength than visible light, so resolving power is greater
Unicellular
Single-Celled
Aggregates
Random clusters of cells
Colonies
Clusters composed of a consistent and predictable number of cells
Multicellular
Organisms have large numbers of cells with specialized structure and function
Autotrophic
Photosynthetic
Heterotrophic
Deriving food from other organisms or their by-product
Amoeba
Organism moves using pseudopodia. Used a compound cell to observe.
Cell Membrane
Boundary that separates the organism from its surroundings
Ectoplasm
Thin, transparent layer of cytoplasm directly beneath the cell membrane
Endoplasm
The granular cytoplasm containing the cell organelles
Nucleus
Gray and granular in appearance, which directs the cellular activities.
Contractile Vacuoles
Clear, spherical vesicles of varying sizes that gradually enlarge as they fill with excess water. Serve as excretory function for amoeba.
Food Vacuoles
Small, dark, irregularly shaped vesicles within the endoplasm. Contain undigested food particles
Pseudopodia
(False Feet) fingerlike projections of the cytoplasm. Used for locomotion, trappings, and engulfing food.
Phogocytosis
Process which traps and engulfs food.
Insect Ringers
A saline solution that is isotonic to the internal environment of insects.
Trichonympha
Inhabits the intestine of the termite
What is inside the gut of the termite?
Trichonympha, Protozoans, and Bacteria
Flagella
Long, hairlike structures on the outside of the organism
Where is the wood particles located?
Located in the posterior region of the triconympha
Protococcus
Terrestrial green alga that forms loose aggregates on the bark of trees
Scenedesmus
An aquatic alga that usually occurs in simple colonies of four cells connected by an outer cell wall.
Aggregates
Observed at the highest power, protococcus are ________
Spines
The transparent projections that occur on the two end cells.
Complex colony
The cells of Volvox form a large __________.
Volvox individual cells contain what structures?
cell wall, nucleus, vacuole, chloroplasts, flagella
Daughter Colonies
Small clusters of cells in a volvox, specialized for reproduction.
Cytoplasmic strands
Form connections between adjacent cells
Volvox
Complex colony where individual cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic strands to form a sphere. Has small clusters of cells: daughter colonies.
Multicellular organisms
Composed of groups of specialized cells: tissues, that together perform particular functions for the organism.
Tissues
Groups of specialized cells that may be grouped to form organs.
Organ System
Organs may be grouped to this.
Protoplasm
In plant cells, organized contents of the cell, exclusive of the cell wall.
Elodea
An aquatic plant commonly grown in freshwater aquaria.
Central Vacuole in plants
Membrane-bound sac w/in the cytoplasm that is fille with water and dissolved substance. Serves to store metabolic waste and gives the cell support by means of turgor pressure
Chloroplasts
Green, spherical organelles that carry the pigment of cholorphyll that is involved in photosynthesis.
Cytoplasmic Streaming
AKA cyclosis: light heats up the cells, cytoplasm and chloroplasts may begin to move around central vacuole
Nucleus in plants
Spherical transparent organelle w/in cytoplasm. Controls cell metabolism and division.
What dye did we use for human epithelial cells?
Methylene Blue
Epithelial cells
Occur on the outside of animals and serve to protect the animals from water loss, mechanical injury, and foreigh invaders. Also line interior cavities and ducts in animals
How do Epithelal cells look like?
Thin, flat cells, that can be folded over on themselves.
Animals can be categorized into four major tissues groups:
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue
Hypothesis
tentative answer to a question
Must be falsified and Testable
What does Benedict's Test test for?
Reducing Sugar
What were the two ways osmolarity was tested for in potato?
Change in Volume and Weight
Colonial Organisms
Cells that live together in groups, and are to some degree dependent on one another.
Ex. scenedesmus-simple colony
Volvox- complex colony
Dependent
y axis
Independent
X axis
Which objective lens should be in use when the revolving turret has been placed on 40?
40x objective lens
high power lens
What substrate did you use to test for the presence/absence of starch?
I2KI (iodine)
How did you know if starch is present or absent
Present= dark purple color
Absent= Yellow Amber Color
Is PTU competitive or comparitive? Y?
Noncompetitive b/c even if you add more catachol the reaction will not occur.
What stain was used on the slide when observing the epithelial cells under the microscope
Methylene blue
Dependent Variable
One variable that will be measured or counted or observed in response to the experimental conditions.
Independent Variable
One variable or experimental condition that is manipulated and considered the most important variable by which to test the investigator's hypothesis.
Controlled variables
variables that must be kept constant during the course of the experiment so that the selected independent variable is the one affecting the dependent variable
Control
a group in which the independent variable are held at an established level or is omitted. Serves as a benchmark that allows scientist to decide whether the predicted effect is really due to the independent variable.