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Biology 353 Exam 3 Practice
Terms in this set (57)
the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar air after inspiration of fresh dry air is lower than one would expect because
water vapor contributes to the overall alveolar gas pressure
the pulmonary and systemic circulation have similar
blood flow per minute and diastolic pressures
Myoglobin is an oxygen binding pigment found in some muscles. It has a higher oxygen affinity than hemoglobin. Therefore, it
facilitates the transfer of oxygen from blood to muscle cells, can act as a store for oxygen, and releases oxygen only when the ppO2 becomes very low
gas exchange in the lungs takes place between the
alveoli and alveolar capillaries
the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen depends on
partial pressure of oxygen in the red blood cells
unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin in metabolizing tissues mainly depends on
partial pressure of oxygen in erythrocytes
CO2 exchange rate in the lungs relies on diffusion between blood and alveolar air, therefore it is dependent on:
diffusion distance, diffusion area, and the gas concentration gradient
the main transport of CO2 in the blood is in the form of
bicarbonate dissolved in the blood plasma
hyperventilation of the lungs results in elevated blood pH levels, called respiratory alkalosis. This happens because of
an excessive loos of CO2 from the blood and a decrease pCO2 in the blood
in hypothermia, one's core body temperature decreases to lower than 95 degrees F. This low temperature reduces organ function because low temperatures...
increase the affinity of hemoglobin for O2 and reduce the dissociation of 02 from hemoglobin in tissues
During exercise, a vigorously contracting muscle will extract a greater percentage of oxygen form the blood going to it than a relaxed muscle somewhere else in the body. Which factor(s) are responsible for this?
A high pCO2 in the capillaries of this muscle and a low pH in the contracting muscle
Central chemoreceptors influence breathing (ventilation rate) by monitoring
the pH of of the cerebrospinal fluid
constriction of the afferent arteriole and dilation of the efferent arteriole of a nephron results in
a) an increase in glomerular filtration (GF) pressure
b) an increase in the GFR
c) an increase in glomerular capillary hydro-static pressure
d)an increase in colloid-osmotic pressure of the ultra filtrate
e) none of the above
e) none of the above
GFR can be measured in a patient by determining urine production rate and the plasma and urine concentrations of a substance that is ...
freely filtered and neither reabsorbed nor secreated
the ultra filtrate (primary filtrate) that enters Bowman's capsule of the nephron is...
cell free, iso-osmotic to blood, and contains ions such as Na+, K+, and glucose
approximately 70% of all filtered water of the initial ultra filtrate in nephrons is always reabsorbed in the...
proximal convoluted tubule and the descending limb of Henle's Loop
a specific aldosterone agonist will have the following effects on kidney function
enhance sodium re-absorption in the distal convoluted tubule and reduce the osmolarity of the urine
hyper-secretion of the mieralocorticoid, aldosterone, by the adrenal glands most likely will result in the following diagnostic characteristics:
Normal blood glucose
Normal blood ACTH
high plasma sodium
high blood pressure
water re-absorption in the kidneys is stimulated by ADH. this occurs by ...
a high water permeability of epithelial cells of the collecting duct
So called ACE inhibitors can be used to treat hypertension. These drugs reduce blood pressure by...
increasing the sodium and water excretion in urine
Which nephron segment is always permeable to water?
Descending limb of Henle's loop
the re-absorption of glucose from the ultra filtrate is couple to the active re-uptake transport of
Sodium in the proximal convoluted tubule
in a human kidney that produces a maximally concentrated urine of 1200 mOsm, the osmolarity of the tubular fluid at the beginning of the proximal convoluted tubule is approximately:
What is the upper limit of urine concentration set by?
the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts in the center of the renal medulla
How will an increase of capillary pressure in the glomerulus affect renal clearance of a substance that is completely filtered and not re-absorbed or secreted?
Release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland is stimulated by...
an increased plasma and cerebrospinal fluid osmolarity
Oat cell carcinomas (aka small cell carcinomas) are lung cancers that often produce and secrete ADH at rates that are not under feedback control. The symptoms this produces are most reminiscent of those produced by
excessive salt intake
Addison's disease is an insufficiency of the adrenal cortex to produce steroids, including aldosterone. What symptoms could be expected?
Excessive loss of sodium in the urine and low blood pressure
The hormone that regulates the secretion of HCl by gastric parietal cells is :
Pepsinogen, secreted by gastric chief cells, is the inactive precursor for the enzyme pepsin. Production of pepsin from pepsionogen is enhanced by:
HCl and Autocatalysis
Gastrin is secreted by G-cells in the antrum of the stomach in response to
Parietal cell secretion is stimulated by
What process in gastric secretion is termed auto-catalysis?
the conversion of pesinogen into pepsin by pepsin
HCl acid production in gastric parietal cells generates bicarbonate. What prevents the cystosol of these cells to become too alkaline?
Bicarbonate is transported out of the cells through the basolateral membrane in exchange for Cl-
The insufficient secretion of secretin by endocrine cells in the walls of the duodenum after a meal will result in
a low pH in the duodenum, reduced secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas, and reduced digestion of carbohydrates and lipids in the duodenum
When a food bolus is entering the duodenum from the stomach it contains partially digested food molecules such as peptides, amino acids, lipids, saccharides, and HCl. Which of these molecules is the main stimulus for the secretions of CCK?
What are zymogens?
Packages of pro-enzymes produced by acinar cells of the pancreas
Diabetes insipidus is a condition with the following symptoms and causes:
Production of large volumes of urine and insufficient ADH secretion/or loss of ADH receptors
A patient is given a glucose tolerance test in which he drinks a glucose-rich drink and his blood glucose is measured over the next several hours. Compared to a healthy adult, the blood glucose concentrations are normal in the beginning, but thereafter show a much slower rate in decreasing the blood glucose concentration compared to normal. Most likely this person suffers from:
Reduced insulin production by beta-cells
reduced insulin sensitivity
At the alveolar air-pulmonary blood interface, gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion. Without certain adaptations, however, diffusion occurs too slowly to produce a viable level of gas exchange. which of the following is a general adaption of the respiratory system that increases the rate of diffusion?
Having thin respiratory surface
The external intercostal muscles contract during inhalation to ----- the volume of the chest cavity
During inhalation the diaphragm --- the volume of the chest cavity
which of the following methods describes ways one could change the PO2 in the environment?
Increase/decrease the concentration of oxygen in this atmosphere, Increase/decrease the air pressure in this atmosphere, Increase/decrease the concentration of other gases in this atmosphere
What does the apneustic center do?
prevents inspiratory neurons from being switched off
What does the ventral respiratory group do?
Stimulates inspiratory and expiratory muscles during active breathing
What does the dorsal respiratory group do?
stimulates inspiratory muscles during quiet breathing
What does the Pneumotaxic center control?
Limits the duration of inspiration
What does the pre-botzinger complex do?
generates respiratory rhytm
What major mechanism mointors PCO2
central chemoreceptors in the medulla monitor changes to H+ levels in the extracellular fluid
Is the only digestive process that is directly carried out by the accessory digestive organs
Refers to the transport of water and nutrients from the digestive tract lumen into blood or lymp
Refers to both the mizing of contents within the digestive tract and the pushing of contents through the digestive tract
Occurs when energy-rich food molecules undergo hydrolysis in the lumen of the digestive tract
When the bolus reaches the end of the esophagus, it squeeses through another spincter before entering the stomach. What is the main purpose of this sphincter
To protect the esophagus from acidic stomach secretions
You are at a food festival and have been given a sample. Even though it was just a bite of food, the act of swallowing has increases your gastric secretion this is an effect on the ---- phase
You walk past a bakery and consider having a very fat-rich pastry right before dinner. You decided no to, because the presence of fat in the duodenum will decrease your gastric secretion. This is an effect on the ---- phase
Which of the following measures ensures that the mucosa is protected against digestion by pepsin?
Mucus reduces the acidity near the mucosa, preventing pepsin precursor from being activated
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