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Chapters 1,2,29.

human geography

concentrates on patterns of human activity and on their relationships with the environment.

physical geography

the study of physical features of the earth's surface

absolute location

exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates

relative location

the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places

spatial perspective

point of view based on looking at where something is and why it is there


a diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface (or part of it)

mental map

image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space


the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume


the relationships that exist between different places and things

formal region

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics

functional (nodal) region

a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it

perceptual (vernacular) region

defined by one's perception, opinions, and feelings

remote sensing

A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.

geographic information systems

A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.


the spread of ideas from one culture to another

expansion diffusion

The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.

relocation diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.


the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another


the process through which people loose differentiating traits,such as dress ,speech particularites or mannerisms,when they come into contact with another society or culture


cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact

Contagious diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.

Hierarchical diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.

Stimulus diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

Independent invention

the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other

Environmental determinism

the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development


The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.


the sum total of the knowledge, attituded,and habitual behavior patterns shared or transmitted by the members of the society.

cultural diffusion

the spread of cultural elements from one society to another

cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape

culture hearth

a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward

culture trait

A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.

culture complex

A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.

culture realm

A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.

culture region

an area in which people have many shared culture traits

culture system

the grouping of certain complexes such as, ethnicity, language, religion and other cultural elements

Sequent occupance

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

folk culture

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.

popular culture

Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.


the process though which something is given monetary value

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