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Unit 1 AP HuG -P.R

Chapters 1,2,29.
STUDY
PLAY
human geography
concentrates on patterns of human activity and on their relationships with the environment.
physical geography
the study of physical features of the earth's surface
absolute location
exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates
relative location
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
spatial perspective
point of view based on looking at where something is and why it is there
map
a diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface (or part of it)
mental map
image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space
distribution
the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
pattern
the relationships that exist between different places and things
formal region
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
functional (nodal) region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
perceptual (vernacular) region
defined by one's perception, opinions, and feelings
remote sensing
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
geographic information systems
A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
diffusion
the spread of ideas from one culture to another
expansion diffusion
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
acculturation
the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another
assimilation
the process through which people loose differentiating traits,such as dress ,speech particularites or mannerisms,when they come into contact with another society or culture
transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
Stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Independent invention
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
culture
the sum total of the knowledge, attituded,and habitual behavior patterns shared or transmitted by the members of the society.
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
culture hearth
a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward
culture trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
culture complex
A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
culture realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
culture region
an area in which people have many shared culture traits
culture system
the grouping of certain complexes such as, ethnicity, language, religion and other cultural elements
Sequent occupance
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
popular culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Commodification
the process though which something is given monetary value