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Acids and Bases
Lebryk Honors Chemistry 1 Chapter 19 Test
Terms in this set (70)
how do acids taste?
what common product is actually dilute acetic acid?
with what do acids react with to produce hydrogen gas
what color do bases turn litmus paper?
what are 2 products when acids and bases react?
water and salt
aqueous solution of acids are electrolytes. what does that mean?
because they ionize, the solutions conduct electricity
how do bases taste?
how do bases feel?
when acids react with carbonates, what gas is produced?
if a substance completely ionizes in water to produce H+ ions, what is it?
a strong acid
name the 6 strong acids
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
what does diprotic mean? give an example
the acid donates 2 H+ ions, H2SO4
what do you call compounds that conduct an electric current?
what is a weak base? give an example
a weak base only partially ionizes in water and produce fewer ions, NH3
which acid-base model emphasizes hydrogen ion donor and acceptors?
In the reaction NH3 + H20 = NH4 + OH-, is water an acid or a base? Does it fit Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, or Lewis models?
H20 is acting like an acid because it donates an H+ ion, it fits with the Arrhenius model, Bronsted-Lowry model and a Lewis model
what is an acidic anhydride? give an example
an oxide that can combine with water to form an acid, SO3 and CO2
what type of reaction is HCl + KOH = KCl + H20?
a species that remains after an acid has given up a hydrogen ion is called what?
what is the relationship between the strength of a strong base and its conjugate acid?
the stronger the base, the weaker the conjugate acid, and the weaker the base, the stronger the conjugate acid
what does an amphoteric species?
a substance that can act as an acid and a base
name an amphoteric substance besides water
HSO4-, any first or second step of the ionization process of diprotic or triprotic substance
a salt is one of the products of neutralization. what are the components of a salt (what comes from the acid and what comes from the base)?
a salt is an ionic compound made up of a cation from a base and an anion from from an acid
what is a Lewis acid?
an acid that is an electron-pair acceptor
water only ionizes partially, leaving most water remaining as water molecules. what ions are formed when it ionizes?
hydronium ions and hydroxide ions
what is the concentration of H30+ in pure water?
what is the product of H30+ and OH- concentrations in water?
(1x10-7)(1x10-7) = 1x10-14 M
what is the equation for calculating pH?
if the [H+] of a solution is less that [OH-] what does this mean about the solution?
what is the pH of a neutral solution?
what is the range of number in the pH scale?
what are indicators?
dyes with pH sensitive colors
what process measures the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react with a measures amount of solution of unknown concentration?
what are the 2 components of a buffer?
weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid
the neutralization of a weak base with a strong acid produces a solution whose pH is what?
the neutralization of a strong base with a strong acid produces a solution whose pH is what?
what color does an acid turn litmus paper?
what makes a solution neutral?
equal numbers of [H+] ions and [OH-] ions
what is an Arrhenius Acid?
produces H+ ions in an aqueous solution
what is an Arrhenius Base?
produces OH- ions in an aqueous solution
what is a Bronsted-Lowry Acid?
any substance that can donate a H+ ions
what is a Bronsted-Lowry Base?
any substance that can accept a H+ ion
the species produced when a base accepts a H+ ion
the species produced when an acid donates a H+ ion
what is a monoprotic acid? give an example?
a substance that donates 1 H+ ion, HNO3
what is a triprotic acid? give an example?
a substance that donates 3 H+ ions, H3PO4
what are polyprotic acids?
substances that donate more than 1 H+ ion
what is a Lewis Acid?
an electron-pair acceptor
what is a Lewis Base?
an electron-pair donor
what are the strong bases?
any hydroxide of group 1 and 2 metals, except Be
what is a basic anhydride? give an example
an oxide that can combine with water to form a base, CaO or MgO
what is a strong acid? give an example
a substance that completely ionizes in water and produces the maximum umber of ions, HCl
what is a strong base?
a substance that completely dissociates in water and produces the maximum number of ions
what is a weak base?
a substance that partially dissociates in water and produces fewer ions in solution
where does equilibrium lay for a weak base and weak acid?
on the left side of the equation
where does equilibrium lay for a strong base or strong acid?
on the right side of the equation
what is the equation for Ka or Kb?
products over reactants
the smaller the Kb, the_____________ the base
the stronger the Kb, the_____________ the base
what are sig figs when determining the H+ or OH- concentration?
number of places past the decimal is the number of sig figs in the answer
what are the sig figs when determining the pH and pOH-
number of sig figs in concentration is the number of places past the decimal the answer goes
equation for pOH
equation of [H+]
equation of [OH-]
what is phenolphthalein?
what is a neutralization reaction?
an acid and a base produce a salt and water
what is happening when the anions of the dissociated salt accepts hydrogen ions from water or the cations of the dissociated salt donate H+ ions to water
solutions that resist changes in pH when limited amounts of acid or base or added
the amount of acid or base that a buffer solution can absorb without a significant change in pH
when is a buffer most effective?
when the concentrations of the conjugate acid-base pair are equal or nearly equal
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