Flag Book 2 and 3
Terms in this set (93)
Home of the first permanent English settlement in North America (jamestown)
Colonies operated by joint stock companies at least during their early years
Colonies that were under the direct authority and rule of the king's government.
Colonies under he authority of individuals who were granted charters of ownership by the king.
The first to explore the Americas for England
Joint stock company
A company which pooled that savings of many investors thereby spreading the risk.
The joint stock company which founded the first permanent English colony in America at Jamestown.
The first permanent English settlement which was established by the Virginia company
Captain John Smith
Leader of Jamestown who led it to survive its first five years
Husband to Pocahontas and helped develop a new variety of Tobacco that would become popular in Europe and become a profitable crop.
Wife to John Rolfe and helped develop a new variety of tobacco that would become popular in Europe and become a profitable crop.
The new colony which was established by the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower instead of going on in jamestown.
Radical dissenters to the Church of England that wanted to organize a completely separate church that was independent of Royal control
The name given to the separatists which left England and Holland in search of religious freedom.
The boat used by the small group of Pilgrims which set sail for Virginia
Massachusetts Bay colony
The home of the puritans as they colonized the new world.
A group of more moderate dissenters tat believed the Church of England could be reformed.
Leader of the puritans who migrated to the Massachusetts Bay colony and founded Boston
A civil war in England in the 1630's drove 15,000 more settlers to the Massachusetts Bay colony in this movement
House of Burgesses
The first representative assembly in America located in Jamestown.
Aboard the Mayflower, the Pilgrims drew up and signed a document that pledged them to make decisions by the will of the majority. This document was an early form of colonial self government and a rudimentary constitution
New colonies which were chartered on either side of the Chesapeake Bay by Kind Charles I in 1632. Included Maryland
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
Granted control of the Chesapeake Bay colonies as a reward for the nobleman's service to the crown
This new colony became the first proprietary colony.
Act of Toleration
The first colonial Statute granting religious freedom to all Christians.
Under contract with a master or landowner who paid for their passage, young people from the British Isles agreed to work for a specified period.
Virginia offered 50 acres of land to each immigrant who paid for his own passage and any plantation owner who paid for an immigrants passage
A dutch ship brought an unusual group of indentured servants to Virginia: black Africans. Because English law at the time did not recognize hereditary slavery the first Africans in Virginia were not in bondage for life.
Sir William Berkeley
The royal governor of Virginia who used dictatorial powers to govern on behalf of the large planters. He antagonized small farmers on Virginias western frontier because he failed to protect them from Indian attacks
Nathaniel Bacon seized upon the grievances of the western farmers to lead a rebellion against berkeley's government. Succeeded in doing so but was suppressed after Bacon's death.
Colony established by Roger Williams due to his banishment from the Bay colony
Puritan Minister the believed the individual's conscience was beyond the control of any civil or church authority. This got him banished from the Bay colony. he fled southward to Narragansett Bay where he and a few followers founded the settlement of providence. Also founded one of the first Baptist churches in America.
This settlement was established by Roger Williams which recognized the rights of American Indians and paid them for the use of their land and allowed Catholics, Quakers, and Jews to worship freely.
A dissenter of Puritan authority who, after being banished from the Bay colony for her belief in antinomianism, led a group of followers to found the colony of Portsmouth.
The idea that faith alone, not deeds, is necessary for salvation.
To the west of Rhode Island, this soon to be colony attracted other settlers who were unhappy with the Massachusetts authorities.
Reverend Thomas Hooker
Led a large group of Boston puritans into the valley and founded Hartford . These settlers then drew up the first written constitution in American History: the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Started a second settlement in the Connecticut Valley called New Haven. This settlement joined with Hartford to create the Connecticut colony.
The last colony to be founded in New England. Originally part of Massachusetts Bay. King Charles II hoped to increase royal control made it its own royal colony.
In an effort to maintain the puritan churches influence and membership, this was offered. Under this, people could become partial church members even if they had not felt a conversion
New England confederation
The four New England colonies (Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven) formed this military alliance. It could act on boundary disputes, return runaway slaves, and dealt with American indians.
King Phillips War
The uprising of the Wampanoags against colonists in which the colonial forces prevailed
The indian tribe which attacked the colonists in King Phillips War
A chief of the Wampanoags known to the colonists as King Philip who united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers
Charles II granted a huge tract of land between Virginia and Spanish Florida. South Carolina and North Carolina were formed from the original grant.
The king granted his brother the Duke of York the lands lying between Connecticut and Delaware. The duke took control from the current dutch governor and renamed it this
In 1674, one proprietor was given control of both halves of this colony. Land titles changed hands repeatedly and inaccurate property lines added to the general confusion. To settle matters, the crown decided in 1702 to combine the two into one colony.
Members of the Religious Society of Friends who believed in the equality of all men and women, nonviolence, and resistance to military service. They also believed religious authority was within each persons soul.
A young Quaker who was granted proprietorship of the Pennsylvania colony
The royal family owed Penn's father a large debt, which they paid to William in 1681 in the form of a grant of American land for a colony
The Holy Experiment
Penn wanted his new colony to provide religious refuge for Quakers and other persecuted people, to enact liberal ideas in government, and generate income and profits for himself.
Frame of Government
Guaranteed a representative assembly elected by landowners in pennsylvania
Charter of Liberties
A written constitution in Pennsylvania which guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration
In 1702, Penn granted the lower three counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly which became this colony.
Led a group of philanthropists to found Georgia's first settlement in Savannah.
The last of the colonies, became a royal colony after Oglethorpe and his group gave up proprietorship. Restrictions were dropped and it slowly grew but it remained the smallest and poorest of the 13 colonies.
Looking upon trade, colonies, and the accumulation of wealth as the basis for a country military and political strength.
Englands government implemented mercantilist policy with this series of acts. Established three rules:
1. Trade to and from the colonies could only be carried out by English or colonial built ships which could be operated only by English or Colonial crews.
2. All good imported into the colonies, except for some perishables, had to pass through ports in England
3. Specified or "enumerated" goods from the colonies could be exported to England only.
Dominion of new England
James II combined New York, New Jersey, and the various New England colonies into a single unit called this.
Sir Edmund Andros
Sent from England to serve as governor to the Dominion of New England. He made himself instantly unpopular y levying taxes, limiting town meetings, and revoking land titles
The Glorious Revolution
Succeeded in deposing Hames and replacing him with two new sovereigns, William and Mary. James fall from power brought the Dominion of New England to an end.
Merchant ships would regularly follow a triangular or three part trade route. First, a ship starting from a New England port such as boston would carry rum across the Atlantic to west africa. There, rum would be traded for hundreds of captive africans. Next the ship would set out on the horrendous Middle Passage. Those africans who survived the frightful voyage would be traded as slaves in the west indies for a cargo of sugarcane. Third, completing the triangle, the ship would return to a New England port where the sugar would be sold to be used to make rum.
The frightful voyage which carried enslaved africans across the atlantic to the West Indies to be traded for sugar as part of the triangular trade
this group of non english immigrants settled chiefly on the rich farmlands west of Philadelphia, an area that became known as pennsylvania Dutch country
These English speaking people emigrated from northern ireland but their ancestors had moved to Ireland from scotland. Had little respect for the British government. Settled in Pennsylvania, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia
Huguenots, Dutch, Swedes
Other immigrant groups which made up 5 percent of the population
The largest group of non English immigrants who did not come by choice.
In only two colonies (Rhode Island and Connecticut) this person was elected. In other colonies they were appointed by either the crown or by a proprietor. (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia appointed by the King) (Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware appointed by proprietor)
All of the colonies permitted the practice of different religions but with varying degrees of freedom. Massachusetts, the most conservative, accepted several types of protestants, but it excluded all non-Christians and Catholics. Rhode Island and Pennsylvania were the most liberal
The social extremes of Europe, with a nobility that inherited special privileges and masses of hungry poor, were, missing in the colonies
The family was the economic and social center of colonial life. They live primarily on farms and had higher standards of living than England.
churches funded through the government
A movement characterized by fervent expressions of religious feeling among masses of people
This person expressed the Great Awakening ideas in a series of sermons, notably one called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God". he argued that God was rightfully angry with human sinfulness.
Spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies, sometimes attracting audiences of 10,000 people.
Along with John Copley, he went to England where he acquired the necessary training and financial support to establish himself as a prominent artist
Along with Benjamin West, he went to England where he acquired the necessary training and financial support to establish himself as a prominent artist
With limited resources available, most authors wrote about serious subjects. This author for example, wrote widely read religious tracts
The poetry of this person is noteworthy both for her triumph over slavery and the quality of her verse
By far the most popular and successful American writer of the 18th century was this remarkable jack of all trades.
Poor Richard's Almanack
Benjamin Franklin's witty aphorisms and advice were collected into this book that was annually revised from 1732 to 1757
A self taught Philadelphian botanist
Colleges which promoted the doctrines of a particular religious group
A college which did not promote the doctrines of a particular religious group. Only one was funded during this period: the college of Philadelphia
John Peter Zenger
A new York editor and Publisher who was brought to trial on a charge of libelously criticizing New Yorks royal governor.
Zenger's lawyer who argued that his client had printed the truth about the governor.
In the 18th century, some educated Americans felt attracted to a European movement in literature and philosophy that is known by this name The leaders of this movement believed that the "darkness" of past ages could be correct by the use of human reasoning in solving most of humanity's problems
In every colony, this consisted of two houses. The lower house was elected by eligible voters and voted for or against new taxes. In the royal or proprietary colonies members of the upper house were appointed by the king or proprietor. In the two self governing colonies, both the upper and lower houses were elective bodies.
The dominant for of local government in New England was this in which people of the town would regularly come together to vote directly on public issues.
In the southern colonies local government was carried on by a law enforcing sheriff and other officials who served a large territorial unit called this.
Colonial democracy was at best considered this. those barred from voting - white women, poor white men, slaves of both sexes, and most free black- constituted a sizable majority of the colonial population.
English cultural domination
English culture was the most prominent in the colonies and pervaded most legislation and daily life
J. Hector St. John de Crevecouer
"The American is a new man, who acts upon new principles; he must therefore entertain new ideas, and form new opinions. From involuntary idleness, servile dependence, and useless labor, he has passed toils of a very different nature, rewarded by ample substance. This is an American." The frenchman who wrote the above description of Americans in 1782 observed a very different society from he struggling colonial villages that had existed in the 17th century.