184 terms

Psychology Exam 4 - Dr. Young (chapter 13 only; in progress)

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Norman Triplet
Initiated social psychology in 1988 and defined social facilitation through his study on cyclists
Social Facilitation
When the presence of others arouses people and improves (or sometimes hinders) their performance on easy or well-learned tasks
Example of Social Facilitation
Working out alone versus working out in a class
Social Loafing
Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts to a common goal than when individually accountable
Causes of Social Loafing
Feeling less accountable, feeling as though individual contribution does not matter, taking advantage when there is lack of identification in a group
Deindividuation
Involves loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Social Psychology
Scientific study of how we interact with, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution Theory
Explains someone's behavior by crediting either the person's disposition or the situation
Internal Disposition
The character or personality trait; Something stable that persists over time
External Disposition
Dependent on situations; "the excuses"
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency, when analyzing others' behaviors, to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the influence of the situation in other people; Failing to give other people slack but giving ourselves plenty of excuses
Napolitan and Colleagues
1979; students attributed the behavior of others to personality traits even when they were told that the behavior was part of an experimental situation...

Subjects were told to rate a woman's characteristics after interacting with her, some having been told that this was simply who she was. All the students assumed it was a trait and not that she was being paid
Attitudes
Feelings influenced by beliefs that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events; Predicts our behavior; can be modified by actions
Peripheral Route Persuasion
Uses incidental cues to try and produce fast but relatively thoughtless changes in attitudes (manipulation)
Examples of Peripheral Route Persuasion
Celebrity endorsement or obeying someone because you believe them to be an expert
Central Route Persuasion
Offers evidence and arguments to trigger thoughtful responses; requires motivation and evaluation; central processing involved
Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon
Involves compliance with a large request after having agreed to a smaller request; began in 1960s with door-to-door sales
Example of Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon
A student asks a friend for help on a homework problem in the beginning of the semester but by the end of the semester, they're asking for the whole homework assignment
Door-In-The-Face Phenomenon
Involves compliance with a small request after having the large request be rejected
Example of Door-In-The-Face Phenomenon
Negotiating for better pay with your boss by asking for a 20% increase and then, when the boss says no, asking for a 5% increase, which is what you desired all along
Role Playing
Includes acting a social part by following guidelines for expected behavior; how we are supposed to behave in social settings
Zimbardo Experiment
Stanford Prison
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Proposed by Leon Festinger; when our actions do not match our attitude; we act to reduce our discomfort when two of our thoughts clash
Leon Festinger Experiment
Participants were paid either $1 or $20 and were told to turn a peg at a fixed interval schedule for a long period of time.

They then had to convince confederates to engage in the task, lying to make it sound exciting.
Brain Regions Activated During Cognitive Dissonance
Posterial part of the Medial Frontal Cortex, the insula, and the Anterior Cingular Cortex
Anterior Cingular Cortex (ACC)
Emotional regulation and pain/discomfort
Social Contagion
The spread of ideas, attitudes, and behaviors in a group; automatic mimicry and the chameleon effect; subtle and unconscious
Automatic Mimicry
Helps people empathize and feel what others feel
Conformity
Adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Ash's Study
Conducted study to see if the participants would conform to the group despite knowing that the group was wrong by having fake participants guess the length similar before asking the participant
Results of Ash's Study
37% without a partner and 5% with a partner conformed
Example of Positive Conformity
Maintaining front lawn because no one wants the worst lawn on the street
Normative Social Influence
To gain approval and avoid disapproval at all costs
Informative Social Influence
To accept others' opinions as new information because we believe they are better informed than we are
Stanley Milgram
Conducted study at Yale where individuals were ordered to shock a confederate each time he answered the question wrong.

2/3 (65%) were willing to give fatal shocks to the learner.
Group Polarization
First observed by James Stoner at MIT;
Group discussions with like minded people strengthen the prevailing beliefs and attitudes;
Magnified by internet communication and is more conservative, extreme, and risky;
Group discussions intensify the extremeness of their initial beliefs
Stoner's Experiment
Conducted study over how likely individuals were to take risks alone versus in a group
Prejudice
Pre-judgement; target of specific cultural, ethnic, or gender orientation; tends to be higher among economically frustrated people
Group Think
People are driven by a desire for harmony within a decision-making group, overriding realistic appraisal of alternatives
Individual Power
Power of the individual and the power of the situation; a small minority that consistently expresses its views may sway the majority
Explicit Racism
Overt and intentional, has decreased over time, and can be by institutions or individuals
Implicit Racism
Utilization of unconscious biases; subtle prejudice remains and is much harder to eradicate
Example of Implicit Racism
Microaggressions
Social Roots of Prejudices
Social inequalities, just-world phenomenon, and stereotypes
Social Inequalities
Have often developed attitudes that justify the status quo
Just-World Phenomenon
Good is rewarded and evil is punished
Stereotypes
Rationalize inequalities
"Are Greg and Emily More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal?"
Experiment that found significant discrimination of African-American resumes, despite their sharing of the same qualifications as other applicants.
White resumes received about 50% more callbacks and were more likely to be rated better.
In-Group
Social definition of who we are and who we are not
In-Group Bias
Favoring of our own group
Scapegoat Theory
Proposes that when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide an outlet for anger
Biological Influences of Aggression
Genetic, neural, and biochemical
Genetic Influences of Aggression
Evidence from animal and twin studies, the genetic Y chromosome as a genetic marker, and the MAOA gene
MAOA Gene
Warrior gene; Inactivates neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and epinephrine
Neural Influences of Aggression
Neural systems facilitate or inhibit aggression when provoked; damage to the frontal lobe (stimulate the amygdala and increase aggression)
Example of Neural Influence of Aggression
Charles Whitman, the UT sniper
Biochemical Influences of Aggression
Testosterone, alcohol, and serotonin
Dopamine
Mood, motivation, and arousal
Serotonin
Impulse, appetite, and sleep
Frustration-Aggression Principle
Frustration leads to anger which can spark aggression; when close to a goal and cut off, anger is triggered
Triggers of Anger
Hot temperatures, physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, cigarette smoke, crowding, etc.
Psychology of Attraction
Proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity of attitudes and interests
Modern Matchmaking
Internet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are slightly more likely to last and be satisfying
Modern Matchmaking Stats
1/4 of heterosexual couples and 2/3 of gay couples meet online
Speed Dating for Women
Claim to have a greater connection to men who use appropriate language and sympathy and like men who interrupt them to show compassion or empathize
Speed Dating for Men
Tend to be more transparent (easier to read) and are more likely to go for the date without being too selective
Men and Women in Speed Dating
Feel like they clicked more when the woman was talking most
Passionate Love
Sexual desire plus a group attachment; arousal; intense but fleeting (usually only in the beginning of relationships)
Emotions
Physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
Compassionate Love
Passion-fed hormones (testosterone) give way to oxytocin; attraction and sexual desire endure without the obsession of early-stage marriage
Satisfying/Enduring Relationships
Have equality and allow for self-disclosure to increase intimacy
Altruism
An unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Bystander Effect
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Example of the Bystander Effect
Jenna Vesey was stabbed outside her apartment in an alleyway despite being heard and seen by many people who chose not to help
Bystanders Are More Likely to Offer Help
To a person who appears to be in need and deserving of assistance, to a woman or someone similar to us in some way, in a small town or rural area with better social connection, when we feel guilty or see someone else trying to help, or when we are not hurried or preoccupied
Strongest Predictor For a Bystander to Help
Good mood; feel-good-do-good phenomenon
Norms For Helping
Social exchange, socialization norm, reciprocity norm, and social-responsibility norm
Social Exchange
"If I do this, what am I going to get out of it and what will it cost me?"
Socialization Norm
Social expectation prescribes how we should behave
Reciprocity Norm
The expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits
Social-Responsibility Norm
Expectation that people should help those who depend on them
Example of Social-Responsibility Norm
Mother and child
Personality
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting, described in terms of stable or enduring qualities; how we view ourselves and other people
Personality Psychology
How does personality develop, do genetics play a role in personality, can we predict how people are going to act based on personality?
Psychodynamic Theories of Personality
Based on early childhood experiences; posits that behavior is a dynamic interaction between the conscious and the unconscious
Humanistic Approach to Psychology
Focuses on the inner capabilities for growth and self-fulfillment; self-esteem
Personality Trait Theories
Examine characteristic patterns of behavior
Social-Cognitive Theories
Explore interactions between traits and social context
Sigmund Freud
Observed patients whose disorders had no clear physical explanations and concluded that their problems reflected unacceptable thoughts and feelings hidden away in the unconscious; STUDIED NEUROPATHY AND BECAME INTERESTED IN NERVOUS (anxiety) DISORDERS
Beliefs of Freud
There must be a psychological cause to the unique problems of certain individuals; free association psychology (sitting on a couch with discourse)
Freud's Structure of the Mind
Most of the mind operates at an unconscious level with three main principles
Freud Structure of the Mind 3 Principles
Id, Ego, and Superego
Id
Pleasure principle; everyone starts with one; we have to have our needs met instantaneously without considering the consequences
Ego
Reality principle; social restraints; develops around toddler years; functions as our executive (middle man)
Superego
Morality principle; develops around four to five years; conscious belief system with an internalized set of ideas
Freud's Psychosexual Stages Consequence
If a person gets stuck in one stage during childhood, as an adult he will have an emphasized focus on that stage
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
Oral
0-18 months, pleasure centers on the mouth
Examples of Oral (freud's psychosexual stage)
sucking, biting, chewing
Anal
18-36 months; pleasure focuses on bowel, coping with demands for control, and bladder elimination (same as initial potty training)
Phallic
3-6 years; pleasure zone is in the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Freud's Belief of the Phallic Phase
Thought boys suffered the edicus complex, or unconscious sexual feelings toward their mothers and negative or hatred feelings toward their fathers
Latency
6 years to puberty; a phase of dormant sexual feelings
Genital
Puberty and onward; maturation of sexual interest and the beginning of romantic relationship desires
Freudian slip (Parapraxis)
A verbal or memory mistake that is believed to be linked with the unconscious mind; reveals the "real secret thoughts and feelings" people have
Explanations for Freudian Slips
Priming and a sex-activated network that causes slips when unfocused
Example of Freudian Slip
Accidentally calling our boyfriend by the name of our ex
Defense Mechanisms
Tactics that reduce and redirect anxiety by reality distortion
Types of Defense Mechanisms
Repression, regression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement, and denial
Repression
Banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness; the desire to distort, deny, or repress; the ego tries to cope and protect you
Regression
Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated
Example of Regression
A little boy reverts to sucking his thumb in the car on the way to his first day of school
Reaction Formation
Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites as a way of trying to compensate
Example of Reaction-Formation
Repressing angry feelings and displaying an exaggerated friendliness
Projection
Disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
Example of Projection
The thief thinks everyone else is a thief
Rationalization
Offering self-justifying explanations in place of real, more threatening unconscious reasons for ones actions; trying to justify our experiences
Displacement
Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses towards a more acceptable or less threatening object or person; transferring our unacceptable desires or impulses onto another
Example of Displacement
A little girl kicks the family dog after her mother sends her to time-out
Denial
Refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities
Example of Denial
A partner denies evidence of his loved one's affair
Freudian Ideas Accepted by Neo-Freudians
Agreed the unconscious is important, appreciated the focus on early childhood, and agreed we have anxiety and that defense mechanisms are a way to control it
Neo-Freudians Criticisms of Freud
Did not believe everything had to be sexually motivated, thought he was overly negative, believed that development takes over twelve years, and complained that he did not talk about social influences
Neo-Fredians
Placed more emphasis on the conscious mind and social motives
Contemporary Psychodynamic Theorists
Reject Freud's emphasis on sexual motivation, view mental life as primarily unconscious, contend that childhood social experiences influence adult personality and attachment patterns, and believe that species' shared evolutionary history was shaped by some predispositions
Neo-Freudian Psychologists
Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Eric Erikson, and Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
Coined the superiority complex
Superiority Complex
A negative complex tied to narcissistic tendencies
Karen Horney
One of the first to be trained in psychotherapy, had a dialogue with Freud over inferiority between sexes, saw coping as another word for defense mechanism, and focused on neuroticism
Carl Jung
Agreed with Freud about the unconscious, thinking it could be a source of creativity and insight, believed in a "collective unconscious" or "archetype", that we have shared traits or memories passed down from our ancestors
Projective Test
A personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger the projection of one's inner dynamics and reveal unconscious motives
Types of Projective Tests
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and Rorschach
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes; present pictures to participants and give them ten minutes to write a story
Rorschach
Projective test in which people are given a set of ten inkblots, seeking to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their perceptions of the blots;
most widely used test;
hard to standardize;
predicts disorders of thoughts such as schizophrenia
Freudian Ideas Still Used Today
Emphasis of early childhood and the role of parents, the role of gender identity in development, and defense mechanisms
The Modern Unconscious Mind
Many research psychologists now think of the unconscious as information processing that occurs without awareness
Unconscious
Involves schemas, priming, right-hemisphere activity, implicit memories, emotions, and stereotypes
False Consensus Effect
Tendency to project our attitudes and opinions on other people; causes an increase of activity in the nucleus acombins
Nucleus Acombins
Linked to reward-like behavior, the production of dopamine, and the pre-frontal cortex
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs
Humanistic Theorists
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers
Humanistic Theories
Influence teaching, parenting, management, the business world, and lay the groundwork for positive psychology
Maslow's Self-Actualizing Person
Focused on the potential for healthy personal growth and people's striving for self-determinism and self-realization
Self-Actualization
Reflecting, awareness, and being open to engage in discourse; how we can be the best we can be
Self-Transcendence
Thinking about how we can benefit and contribute to society as a whole
Rodger's Person-Center Perspective
Posited that growth-promoting environment characteristics are genuineness, acceptance, and empathy;
Unconditional positive regard and self-concept are key
Genuineness
Honesty and directness to form self-actualization
Acceptedness
Acknowledging our feelings and not passing judgement
Empathy
Need to be attuned to the emotions of others
Rodgers
Used questionnaires in which people described their ideal selves and their actual selves; found that unhealthy people have a discrepancy between how they describe themselves ideally versus themselves in actuality
Trait Theorists
See personality as a stable and enduring pattern of behavior throughout a lifespan, describe the differences rather than trying to explain them, use factor analysis to identify clusters of behavior tendencies that occur together, and suggest genetic predispositions influence many traits
Gordon Allport
First modern trait theorists, wrote 18,000 personality describing words and then narrowed them down to 4,500 personality adjectives before organizing them into hierarchies
Gordon Allport Hierarchies
Cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits
Cardinal Traits
Traits that define an individual
Central traits
Traits which are generic/the building blocks
Secondary Traits
Traits that vary situationally
Myers and Briggs
Studied individual behaviors and statements to find out how people differ in personality; categorized by traits
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Questionnaire that uses four scales to categorize people by traits: energy, information, decisions, and relating/lifestyle;
flaw in that it is a binary questionnaire and most people range in the middle
Myers-Briggs Energy
Extraversion versus introversion
Myers-Briggs Information
Sensing or intuition
Myers-Briggs Decisions
Thinking or feeling
Myers-Briggs Relating/Lifestyle
Judging or perceiving
Factor Analysis
Statistical procedure used to identify clusters of test items to map basic components of intelligence; unstable vs. stable, introverted vs. extraverted, psychoticism
Hans and Civil Eysenck
Defined the four dimensions of traits
Extraverts
Seek stimulation because normal brain arousal is relatively low, have a hard time suppressing impulses and are more likely to seek out stimulation, have higher content of dopamine and dopamine-related neural activity, tend to use more personal pronouns and talk more positively about themselves and others
Introverts
Often seek low levels of stimulation from their environment but still have the skills to interact with people, are good at listening, and have higher autonomic activity
Personality Inventory
Questionnaire designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors, requires a fourth grade reading level, includes 300-500 questions, and is used by many different institutions
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
True or false questionnaire
Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI)
Questionnaire structured as "agree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, etc."
Trait Theory Big Five Factors
Most widely accepted trait theory
Big Five Factors
Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion
Traits that Make a Good President
Extraversion and conscientiousness
Rabenzer and Collegez
Found that openness to experience aids in how well remembered a president is and how great overall he is perceived; found being agreeable is bad and honesty/straightforwardness are not predictors of greatness
Person Situation Controversy??
??
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Bandura; viewed behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits, including their thinking; emphasized interaction of our traits with our situations; applies principles of learning, cognition, and social behavior to personality
Reciprocal Determinism
Describes the interaction and mutual influence of behavior, internal personal factors, and environmental factors
Internal Personal Factors
Thoughts and feelings about risky activities
Environmental Factors
Who is doing it around you and how does society view it
Social-Cognitive Theorists
Build on concepts of learning and cognition, contend the best way to predict behavior in a given situation is to observe that behavior in similar situations, and underemphasize the importance of unconscious motives, emotions, and biologically influenced traits
Self
The center of personality, motivates toward positive development, and is created through unity in experiences
Spotlight Effect
The tendency to think that people notice things about us that no one really notices
Self-Esteem
Correlates with less pressure to conform, persistence at difficult tasks, better sleeping patterns, and happiness
Defensive Self-Esteem
Fragile, threatened by failure, more vulnerable to threats that feed on anger
40-50%
Percent of trait variation accounted for by genes
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