56 terms

Bel Rea Hematology Exam 1

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What is the #1 mistake in Hematology?
Not gently and thoroughly mixing blood
Plasma
The fluid portion of anti-coagulated while blood
Serum
The fluid portion of clotted/coagulated whole blood
PCV (Packed Cell Volume)
The percent of a quantity of blood which is made up of the red blood cells.
What makes up the buffy coat?
WBC and platelets
At what time and speed should crit tubes spin?
6000 RPM for 5 min
What are the terms of quantification?
mild, moderate, marked
What are the two normal colors that plasma can be?
Clear or straw
What is the term for red plasma?
Hemolytic
What is the term for yellow plasma?
Icteric
What is the term for white plasma?
Lipemic
What are the causes of hemolytic plasma?
shaking, too small of a needle with too much negative back pressure, IV himolysis (IVH)
What are the causes of icteric plasma?
biliary stasis, carotenes, ev hemolysis (increased EVH)
What are the causes of lipemic plasma?
postprandial, hypothyroid, DM
What is in Jar 1 of Dif Quick stain, and what is the procedure?
Fixative - 5, one second dips
What is in Jar 2 of Dif Quick stain, and what is the procedure?
Eosinophilic - 5, one second dips
What is in Jar 3 of Dif Quick stain, and what is the procedure?
Basophilic - 7-10, one second dips
What is in Jar 1 of Wright's stain, and what is the procedure?
Wright's stain - place blood film in jar 1 for 1-3 min.
What is in Jar 2 of Wright's stain, and what is the procedure?
Buffer w/ 1 pipette of Wright's stain - place blood film in jar 2 for 1 min.
What is in Jar 3 of Wright's stain, and what is the procedure?
Distilled water - 7-10, one second dips
Rouleaux
Chain of RBCs. Normal in healthy equines. Common in dehydrated patients.
Agglutination
RBCs clumping together and overlapping due to antigen antibody binding. Not normal in any species for any reason.
What is evaluated on 10x in the feathered edge of the blood film?
1.) WBC distribution
2.) Platelet clumping
3.) Abnormal cells
4.) Microfilaria
What is evaluated on 10x in the monolayer of the blood film?
1.) Adequate size?
2.) WBC distribution
What is evaluated on 10x in the body of the blood film?
RBC associations (rouleaux, agglutination)
What is evaluated on 40x in the feathered edge of the blood film?
nothing
What is evaluated on 40x in the monolayer of the blood film?
1.) WBC differential
2.) Begin morphology assessment
What is evaluated on 40x in the body of the blood film?
nothing
What is evaluated on 100x in the feathered edge of the blood film?
nothing
What is evaluated on 100x in the monolayer of the blood film?
1.) RBC morphology
2.) WBC morphology
3.) Platelet assessment
What is evaluated on 100x in the body of the blood film?
nothing
Granule
A membrane bound package of substances
Vacuole
A membrane bound package lacking substance
Granulocytes
Granules in cytoplasm. Elongated, dark, dense, segmented nucleus. Dark chromatin.
Chromatin
The pattern/organization of genetic material within the cell. The nuclear characteristics.
Neutrophil (Seg)
Neutral staining cytoplasmic granules. Segmented nucleus. Clumped, ropey chromatin.
Eosinophils
Red-orange staining cytoplasmic granules. Segmented nucleus.
Basophils
Grey-blue to purple staining cytoplasmic granules. Segmented nucleus. Very rare!
Monocytes
ameboid nucleus, lacy chromatin pattern, blue-grey cytoplasm +/- vacuoles.
Lymphocytes
High nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. Clumped/condensed chromatin. Small cap of cytoplasm.
List the normal RBC sizes for small and large animals from smallest to largest
Goat (4um)
Sheep (4.5 um)
Cattle (5.5 um)
Horse (5.7 um)
Cat (5.8 um)
Swine (6 um)
Dog (7 um)
Anisocytosis
Variation in size of RBC
Macrocytosis
Unusually large mature RBCs (very rare)
Microcytosis
Unusually small mature RBC
Poikilocytosis
Term used to describe overall appearance of the blood film.
Schistocytes
Fragments
Echinocytes
Crenated cells. Small, even projections over the entire cell surface.
Acanthocyte
Irregular spicules that are uneven in size and distribution.
Keratocyte
Have one or two long spikes coming off the cell. Looks like a helmet or Elmer Fudd Hat.
Leptocyte
RBC with more surface area than contents
Target Cell
Variation of a leptocyte that looks like a bulls eye target.
Spherocyte
Small, round, evenly staining RBC. More contents than surface area.
Stomatocyte
RBC has a pale colored mouth area in the center of the cell.
Torocyte
"Punched out cell". Hole in the middle
Eccentrocyte
"Blister cell". Common in conjunction with Heinz bodies. Due to oxidization of the red cell membrane.
Ghost cell
Literally an empty RBC membrane. Usually an indication of IVH.
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